answer questions 371

Part 1: Note-taking by using symbols and abbreviations(15 Marks)

  • Read the following passages and then write notes more briefly by using symbols and abbreviations, and by omitting unnecessary words.
  • Read the text below then answer the following sections A and B.
  • Muscat the capital and largest city of Oman. It is the seat of the Governorate of Muscat. The total population of Muscat Governorate reached 1.4 million as of September 2018. The metropolitan area spans approximately 3,500 km2 (1,400 sq mi) and includes six provinces called wilayat . Known since the early 1st century CE as an important trading port between the west and the east, Muscat was ruled by various indigenous tribes as well as foreign powers such as the Persians, the Portuguese Empire, the Iberian Union and the Ottoman Empire at various points in its history. A regional military power in the 18th century, Muscat’s influence extended as far as East Africa and Zanzibar. As an important port-town in the Gulf of Oman, Muscat attracted foreign tradesmen and settlers such as the Persians and the Balochis. Since the ascension of Qaboos bin Said as Sultan of Oman in 1970, Muscat has experienced rapid infrastructural development that has led to the growth of a vibrant economy and a multi-ethnic society. Muscat is termed as a Global City.
  • Istanbul

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formerly known as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country’s economic, cultural and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait (which separates Europe and Asia) between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives in suburbs on the Asian side of the Bosporus.[10] With a total population of around fifteen million residents in its metropolitan area,[3] Istanbul is one of the world’s largest cities, ranking as the world’s fifth-largest city proper and the largest city in Europe. Over 18 million foreign visitors came to Istanbul in 2016, five years after it was named a European Capital of Culture, making the city the world’s fifth most popular tourist destination.

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3) Mark Zuckerberg

Mark Elliot Zuckerberg is an American internet entrepreneur . He is known for co-founding Facebook, Inc. and serves as its chairman, chief executive officer, and controlling shareholder .Born in New York, Zuckerberg attended Harvard University, where he launched the Facebook social networking service from his dormitory room on February 4, 2004, with college roommates Eduardo Saverin and Andrew McCollum. Originally launched to select college campuses, the site expanded rapidly and eventually beyond colleges, reaching one billion users by 2012. Zuckerberg took the company public in May 2012 with majority shares. His net worth is estimated to be nearly $54 billion as of March 2020.[7] In 2007, at age 23, he became the world’s youngest self-made billionaire. As of 2019, he is the only person under 50 in the Forbes ten richest people list, and the only one under 40 in the Top 20 Billionaires list.

Since 2010, Time magazine has named Zuckerberg among the 100 wealthiest and most influential people in the world as a part of its Person of the Year award.

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Part 2: Discourse Markers (Functions)(15 Marks)

The origin and function of money

The need for money originates from the fact that different people in society produce different things. This means that people depend on each other for goods and services. Let’s take the case of a farmer who produces more food than he needs and a carpenter who makes tables and chairs. It will be obvious that unless some means of exchange is found, the farmer will have no furniture and the carpenter will starve! Clearly, the simplest means of exchange will be for them to use barter — in other words, to exchange a certain amount of one kind of goods (let’s say flour) for a certain amount of another (tables or chairs, in this case).

Obviously, barter can work as the main means of exchange only in a very simple society. In an advanced society, we cannot go round carrying the things we make or produce in the hope that we will find someone to accept them in exchange for the things we need. So, we need something which will stand for the goods and services that we want to exchange. Hence the origin of money. It follows that anything can act as money or currency, provided that all the people using it agree on its value. We are not surprised to find, therefore, the use of very many different kinds of money in different places at one time or another.

Examples of ‘currencies’ that have been used in the past are cowrie shells, coconuts and whales’ teeth. As one might expect, things used as money should have certain qualities, namely that they should be firstly convenient, secondly durable (that is, long-lasting) and lastly, they should have some rarity value. Thus, we would not expect large stones to be used as money (because fruit they are too inconvenient), nor ire or plants (because they go bad eventually), nor pebbles (because they are too common). Nevertheless, it is interesting to note that these rules do not work all the time. To take one good example, there is an island in the Pacific Ocean where the people living there used large stone wheels as a currency; sometimes these wheels were as big as twelve feet (3.7 metres) across! They were sometimes stored outside a man’s house as a sign of his wealth.

I suppose that what I’ve been saying amounts to this: money may (as the proverb states) be ‘the root of all evil, but no advanced society can function without it.

  • Read the passage above. Then find the following:
  • Read the passage again. Then fill in the table as required. The first one is already done as an example. Do not repeat the same discourse makers you mentioned in section A.
  • One discourse marker for CONDITION
  • One discourse marker for EXAMPLE
  • One discourse marker for DEFINITION
  • One discourse marker for CAUSE AND EFFECT
  • One discourse marker for CONTRAST

(10 marks)

Discourse Markers

Functions

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Firstly

Listing

End of Assignment 1