Applied Thermodynamics

Applied Thermodynamics

Project description 7. The development of new extraction technologies in the oil and natural gas industries has shifted the worlds energy economy over the last five years to one where the United States is at the forefront as an energy producer.

With the increased production in oil and natural gas, the pipeline transportation systems are at capacity and alternative methods are used to move un-refined and refined product throughout the United States. One such method is the movement of crude using railcars.

A recent accident in West Virginia has highlighted the delicate balance of the energy movement throughout the United States where a rail accident occurred, see: Virginia-hauled-newer-model-tank-cars-oil/stories/201502170171 One aspect of a vibrant society is the availability of low cost energy.

However, many sources of energy result in polluting the environment we live in. Provide a one page (1.5 spacing, 12 point font, 1 margins) assessment of the

energy status in the United States and provide your opinion on what should be done in the near term of the next 5 to 20 years to balance a healthy economy with a clean environment. The use of referred articles and use of reputable sources will garner higher points.

Note that the article in the listed URL is an example of the complexity of energy; you do not need to address this specific incident in your article. (25 points)

Applied Thermodynamics

INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION OF THERMODYNAMICS
Thermodynamics is a branch of science which deals with energy. Engineering thermodynamics is
modified name of this science when applied to design and analysis of various energy conversion systems.

Thermodynamics has basically a few fundamental laws and principles applied to a wide range of problems.
Thermodynamics is core to engineering and allows understanding of the mechanism of energy conversion.
It is really very difficult to identify any area where there is no interaction in terms of energy and matter.

It is a science having its relevance in every walk of life. Thermodynamics can be classified as ‘Classical
thermodynamics’ and ‘Statistical thermodynamics’. Here in engineering systems analysis the classical
thermodynamics is employed.

“Thermodynamics is the branch of physical science that deals with the various phenomena of
energy and related properties of matter, especially of the laws of transformations of heat into other
forms of energy and vice-versa.”

Internal combustion engines employed in automobiles are a good example of the energy conversion
equipments where fuel is being burnt inside the piston cylinder arrangement and chemical energy liberated
by the fuel is used for getting the shaft work from crankshaft. Thermodynamics lets one know the
answer for the questions as, what shall be the amount of work available from engine?, what shall be the
efficiency of engine?, etc.

For analysing any system there are basically two approaches available in engineering
thermodynamics. Approach of thermodynamic analysis means how the analyser considers the system.
Macroscopic approach is the one in which complete system as a whole is considered and studied
without caring for what is there constituting the system at microscopic level.

Contrary to this the microscopic approach is one having fragmented the system under consideration
upto microscopic level and analysing the different constituent subsystems/microsystems. In this approach
study is made at the microscopic level. For studying the system the microlevel studies are put together
to see the influences on overall system.

Thus, the statistical techniques are used for integrating the
studies made at microscopic level. This is how the studies are taken up in statistical thermodynamics. In
general it can be said that, Macroscopic approach analysis = ∑ (Microscopic approach analysis).