archeology questions

Can you write 2 pages or one page and half (double spaced) times roman 12 font, choosing one of the questions either a or b in each section that you prefer to answer and you think you have enough understanding to explain it in details. Please I want the essay to be as detailed as possible answering the requirments. attached are the references, please use only those if you found anything outside if it doesn’t contradictit, it is ok you can use them. No citation needed. I am also going to upload more files just in case you might find answers there.

Section 1

a. In the last few decades archaeological research has been able to establish the general timing and nature of the arrival of humans in North America. Please summarize this research—where did these people come from, how did they get here, and about when did this happen? What kind of evidence do we have for this process? Please discuss at least two archaeological sites to illustrate your answer, at least one containing human remains. What do these sites tell us about the nature of early society in North America?


b. It has long been noted that there is a broad match between the evidence for humans arriving in North America and the mass extinction event that occurred at the end of the Pleistocene. While some have argued that this arrival is directly responsible for the extinction, others have suggested that environmental changes at this time are mostly responsible. Please summarize the arguments on both sides, being sure to describe specific evidence that is used in each case. On balance, what do you think is the most likely explanation for these extinctions and why do you think this?

Section 2

a. Humans relied on hunting and gathering for over 95% of our history, and yet, in many places, humans made the shift to producing their own food. Why did this happen? What is the most important advantage of food production compared to hunting and gathering (note: you need to be specific here, “it’s just better” or “it’s more advanced than hunting and gathering” isn’t what I’m looking for)? Under what conditions would this be an advantage? You should describe at least three possible reasons why the shift to food production might have occurred given this major advantage. For each one, how might this be seen archaeologically (in other words, what would archaeological evidence for this look like)?


b. You have just found an archaeological site that clearly demonstrates that the people who lived there in the past were food producers. You know this because both the plant and animal remains show traits that would be of benefit to humans. Specifically, what are these traits and how can you tell from the archaeological remains? One of your team comments that it’s dreadful what humans did to these species, but you aren’t so sure. While there are clearly costs, are there any benefits to these traits from the point of view of the plant or animal perspective? Finally, in the lowest levels of the site you find the remains of a domestic dog. In the public lecture you give at the end of the season, where you are describing the dog remains, you also explain this idea of mutual benefits to your audience but you are challenged by an obnoxious [fill in gender of your own choosing here]. Explain to this person how both humans and dogs might have benefitted from domestication, and what evidence you have from your excavation to support this idea.

Section 3

a. Humans spent over 95% of our past living as hunter-gatherers, that is, obtaining all our food from the natural environment. What are the general characteristics of this lifestyle? What are its advantages and potential disadvantages (hint: don’t guess about this, use the information from the book and the powerpoints!). Please illustrate your answer by discussing the Mesolithic—what are its dates, how is it similar from the preceding Upper Paleolithic and how is it different? Is it useful to have a period like this between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic? Why or why not? Please describe at least one specific Mesolithic site in your answer.


b. Once food production becomes pervasive among humans, a series of significant changes are seen in societies in many places. Please discuss at least three of these changes. For each one, please use a specific site to illustrate what this might look like archaeologically. Why do you think each of these changes is particularly connected to the onset of food production?