CHEN6703 Advanced Particle Systems Engineering

CHEN6703 Advanced Particle Systems Engineering

CHEN6703 Advanced Particle Systems Engineering


Introduction to painting chemistry and principles of paint technology.

Conservation concerns for acrylic emulsion paints.

Nanomaterials in the construction industry.

Emulsion and water-soluble paints and coatings.



Most people think of paint as the coloring substance seen on the walls of buildings, cars, ships and convoys (Martens 2010 p.44). In a real sense, paint depicts more of coloring matter although it is smeared in form of liquid after undergoing a range of chemical processes. The early artists depended on the natural elements like berry juice to create paints. As technology evolved, the paint industries developed with the manufacture of paint using pigments, resin, solvents, and additives. Modern technology uses the nanomaterials that increase the effectiveness of the paint and provide new functionalities to the paint (Martens 2010, p.45).

This report is significant because it will look at the technology, science, and engineering principles involved in the manufacture processes of paints. It is also important to know about the roles of particles in the products and the limitation of the paints as it will be discussed in this paper. This report is vital because it outlines any safety concerns and environmental issues as a result of particles used in paints.

Technology, Science, and Engineering Principles behind the Paint

As stated earlier by Martens (2010 p.46), paint comprises of the following constituents;

The pigment in the paint is used to give the color, hide and control gloss. It is categorized into two; “prime pigments which include the Titanium (II) oxide which is white, Chrome Green Oxide, Iron Oxides that appear to be yellow, and red.” The second one is referred to as “Extender pigments that include Calcite, Talc, Mica, and Barytes.” (Weismantel 2012).

The resin is the binder and clinks the pigment elements together; offers grip to the object painted (Bentley and Turner 2016). Often, the waterborne paints use the “acrylic emulsion polymers as binders.” Habitually, the cheap paints use the PVA (Poly Vinyl Acetate) binders. We also have the solvent-based resin which exits in a wider variety commonly known as the “alkyd resin that is used in the enamel paints.

CHEN6703 Advanced Particle Systems Engineering

Solvent carries the pigments, and resins in a paint and they can be organic like the “mineral turps.” Additives are essential in improving the easiness of polishing the paints, mold and scuff resistance.” (Bentley and Turner 2016).

Manufacturing Process (Engineering Principles)

Morgans (2014 pp.114-119) states that the manufacturing process of painting involves several steps. The manufacture process is done in batches from about two hundred liters for exceptional paints and colors to eleven thousand liters for principal white paints. A procedure of manufacture includes five crucial parts as explained below (Martens 2010 p.47).

Step One: Measurement of Ingredients Accurately

In most cases, the constituents are weighed on scales, and occasionally they are measured by volume in graduated measuring containers like measuring cylinders, volumetric flasks, pipettes and burettes (Bentley and Turner 2016).

Step Two: The Mill-Base and Pigment Dispersal

This is where the dispersion of powdery pigments with insignificant sizes which clink together forming clusters or agglomerates is done. The clumps are fragmented into units that are easily moistened by resin and additives which stops them from clinking together (Morgans 2014).

CHEN6703 Advanced Particle Systems Engineering