Effect Of Particle Shape On Mechanical Properties
Effect Of Particle Shape On Mechanical Properties
The aim of the experiment is to help in the understanding the meaning as well as the importance of the significance that comes along with the density of substances. Density from the theoretical understanding is a primary characteristic for homogeneous objects in their entirety. In that regard we can say that density qualifies for intensive property, a property that that translates to the meaning that density is dependent on the characteristics of the object in question in terms of composition, size or amount in most cases. To determine density of an object there should be first the nondestructive physical process through which various materials are distinguished from one another (Watanabe and Tohma, et al 33). It is sort of classification of materials based on the understanding of their properties in relation to the primary aim which in our case in density of regular and irregular objects. The definition of density from the formula point of view goes that density is the ratio of the objects mass (m) to its volume (V).
The SI unit for density in liquid or solid form is as follows g/mL or g/cm3 depending on whether it is liquid or solid respectively. It should be noticed that cm3 is an equivalent to the mL unit and no doubt about it should be made (Nikoli?, Živkovi?, Brankovi? & Pavlovi? 559). The units as put above work hand in hand and there should be no confusion about the use of the units. In the experiment that is in question the main concern is the determination of the densities of both regular and irregular objects putting more emphasis on the irregular object as the main concern is how to accurately determine the density of the object that have undefined and irregular size.
In this experiment focus would be on the determination of density of a liquid which is defined in the procedure as water and use the same to compare the physical attributes or say properties that the irregular object possess. Density is contained in the unit volume of any object.
In as long as volume occupied by a gram water varies vary as temperature change, then the density of the water for instance vary in accordance with the change in temperature. The mass of the object in question would be attained in a different manner.Effect Of Particle Shape On Mechanical Properties
The mass is determined by the comparison of the mass of the object by the mass of said known object. The mass in that regard is obtained through use of a weighing balance to be exact. The volume for use in the experiment is obtained simply by use of a graduated measuring cylinder, a graduated pipette or any other volumetric apparatus (Parihar, Anil Singh, et al). The volume of a regular solid in most cases object like a spheres or cube is obtained by measuring their dimensions then work out the volume through use of conventional mathematical formulas.
There are some difficulties in the determination of the volume for irregular solids since it is only obtained through use of the measure in the change in the water volume upon immersing the object in water. The object in this regard displaces an equal volume of water in accordance with the calibration (Wang, Yin, et al 379). The method however applies to insoluble materials so in case the solid dissolves in water, then there should be in its place use a liquid that the object in under study does not dissolve into for instance carbon tetrachloride if the aim is to determine the volume of salt.
Theory And Objectives
In the event of determining density , mass and volume forms the most fundamental part of the entire process. Mass and volume vary despite the similarity in the material used for making the objects. Density comes in handy as it is the prevalent physical property for easier characterization as well as classification of substances. It is important in that it applies in Quality Monitoring and Process Control and for identity of heavier or lighter oil. The application of density is vast as it cuts across various spheres of life be it environmental issues or manufacturing life cycles in industries. The oil industry is however, the mostly affected with expansive use of density and thus the emphasis on the determination of density of materials.
- Measuring Cylinder
- Graduated cylinder
- Density meter
- Materials Used:
- Graduated Cylinder
- Regular Shaped Solid
- Metal Sample
- Distilled Water
- Electronic Balance
The experiment started off by first carrying out determination of volume of regular objects then that of irregular objects.
- The mass is determined weighing balance ( Applicable to regular and irregular objects)
- The volume for use in the experiment is obtained simply by use of a graduated measuring cylinder, a graduated pipette or any other volumetric apparatus.
- The volume of a regular solid obtained by measuring their dimensions use mathematical formulas to calculate the figures from the measurement.
- Irregular objects volume is then obtained through use of water via immersion
- Density meter used in the determination of densities for liquids
The reaction between a carbonate and an acid forms a salt, carbon (IV) oxide, and water. In This experiment therefore, calcium carbonate reacted with hydrochloric acid and resulted in the formation of calcium chloride, water, and carbon (IV) oxide just as indicted in the following chemical reaction:
CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl3 + H2O + CO2
For the rate of the reaction to be measured, one of the products was supposed to be measured, and the rate at which it was being produced was used to determine the rate of the reaction. The experiment progressed and was observed by collecting the carbon dioxide evolved in a gas syringe and recording the volume at regular intervals based on the below presented diagram:
The variables and/or factors that were changed included the acid concentration, temperature of the acid, and particle size of calcium carbonate (Zhao and Dong et al 239) Concentrated and dilute acid had different impact when they were reacted with marble chips and the time taken to turn the mixture clear also varied depending on the acid concentration. High and low temperatures were also investigated on their impact to the reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid. The experiment also required to use different sizes of marble chips to determine which particle size could react faster as compared to others.
Previous experiments indicated that calcium carbonate when reacted with hydrochloric acid, can turn the acid luminous and that it itself will bubble and turn cloudy. These experiments also had it that time consumed for a particular size of marble chips to disappear completely is used to determine the rate of the reaction. The rate of reaction according to research can be defined as the speed at which a reaction is expected to occur. Chemically, the rates of reaction is defined as the rate of a chemical reaction that increases when reactants and products concentration is increased and is measured by unit time. Increase in the concentration, gas pressure, temperature, the surface area, reactants, and use of a catalyst are some of the factors that affects the rate of a reaction.
The experiment commenced by ensuring that the apparatus was gas tight and then clamped up as shown in the diagram in the introduction part above, and the graduated syringe as well as the boiling tube were held in position by the aid of appropriate clamps and six marble chips placed in the boiling tube. A 10 cm3 measuring cylinder was then used to measure exactly 4 cm3 of bench hydrochloric acid. To get the accurate volume of the bench acid, a teat pipette was utilized. The stop watch was then switched on when hydrochloric acid was added in the boiling tube, and the stopper replaced almost immediately (Zhao and Dong et al 246). The volume of the gas (carbon dioxide) was recorded every 15 seconds for a total of four minutes just as it is shown in the result table. When the reaction came to completion, the used hydrochloric acid was poured off, taking care not to lose the calcium carbonate.
The gas syringe was rest to zero and using a 10 cm3 measuring again, 4 cm3 of bench hydrochloric acid was measured with the teat pipette being used to acquire exact volume of the acid. The 4 cm3 was then added to distilled water and the teat pipette used to obtain the exact final volume of 8cm3. The clock was then set on and the step 4 above repeated.
The measuring cylinder was then set to zero and using a 10 cm3 cylinder, 4 cm3 of bench acid was measured and just as above a teat pipette was used to obtain the exact volume. 4 cm3 of distilled water was measured using a teat pipette to get the exact volume and the two volumes were placed into the second boiling tube which was warmed until the temperature was about 350C. The apparatus were then emptied and the marble chips tried using a paper towel (Khatmullina, Liliya and Isachenko 871).The same calcium carbonate were crushed by the help of a mortar and pestle and then returned to the boiling tube. The syringe was set to zero, and using a 10 cm3 measuring cylinder, 4 cm3 of bench acid was measured, with the help of a teat pipette so the accurate volume was obtained. The volume of the acid was then added to the crushed marble chips in the boiling tube and the stopper replaced immediately.
Density = M/V
Regular solid – 173.084g/318.226cm^3 = 5.43903×10^-1
Metal Pellets- Mass = 50.046g
Volume – 27.2mL – 20.0mL = 7.20mL
Percent error= (6.95g/mL – 6.80)/6.80 X 100 = 2.21%