# Effect Of Particle Shape On Mechanical Properties

Effect Of Particle Shape On Mechanical Properties

## Question:

Discuss about the Effect Of Particle Shape On Mechanical Properties.

### Introduction

The aim of the experiment is to help in the understanding the meaning as well as the importance of the significance that comes along with the density of substances. Density from the theoretical understanding is a primary characteristic for homogeneous objects in their entirety. In that regard we can say that density  qualifies for intensive property, a property that that translates to the meaning that density is dependent on the characteristics  of  the  object  in question  in terms  of  composition,  size or  amount  in  most cases. To determine density of an object there should be first the nondestructive physical process through which various materials are distinguished from one another (Watanabe and Tohma, et al 33). It is sort  of classification  of materials based  on the  understanding  of  their  properties in relation to  the primary  aim which in  our case  in density of regular and  irregular  objects. The definition of density from the formula point of view goes that density is the ratio of the objects mass (m) to its volume (V).

The SI unit for density in liquid or solid form is as follows g/mL or g/cm3 depending on whether it is liquid or solid respectively. It should be noticed that cm3 is an equivalent to the mL unit and no doubt about it should be made (Nikoli?, Živkovi?, Brankovi? & Pavlovi? 559). The units as put above work hand in hand and there should be no confusion about the use of the units. In the experiment  that is  in question  the main concern  is the determination of  the densities of  both regular and  irregular  objects  putting more emphasis  on  the irregular  object  as  the main concern is how to accurately determine the density of the  object that have undefined and irregular size.

In this experiment  focus would  be  on the determination of density  of  a liquid which is defined in the  procedure as water  and use  the same to compare  the physical attributes  or say properties  that the  irregular  object possess. Density is contained in the unit volume of any object.

In as long as volume occupied by a gram water varies vary as temperature change, then the density of the water for instance vary in accordance with the change in temperature. The mass of the object in question would be attained in a different manner.Effect Of Particle Shape On Mechanical Properties

The mass is determined by the comparison of the mass of the object by the mass of said known object. The mass in that regard is obtained through use of a weighing balance to be exact. The volume for use in the experiment is obtained simply by use of a graduated measuring cylinder, a graduated pipette or any other volumetric apparatus (Parihar, Anil Singh, et al). The volume  of a regular solid  in most cases object  like a spheres  or cube is  obtained  by measuring  their dimensions  then work  out  the volume  through use  of  conventional mathematical  formulas.

There are some difficulties  in the determination of  the volume for irregular solids since it is only obtained  through use  of the measure  in the change  in the water  volume upon immersing  the  object  in water. The object in this regard displaces an equal volume of water in accordance with the calibration (Wang, Yin, et al 379). The method  however applies to insoluble materials so in case  the solid dissolves in water, then there should be in its place use a liquid  that the  object in under study does not dissolve  into for instance carbon tetrachloride if the aim is to determine  the volume  of salt.

### Theory And Objectives

In  the event  of determining density  , mass and  volume forms  the most  fundamental  part  of  the entire  process. Mass and volume vary despite the similarity in the material used for making the objects. Density comes in handy as it is the prevalent physical property for easier characterization as well as classification of substances. It is important in that it applies in Quality Monitoring and Process Control and for identity of heavier or lighter oil. The application of density is vast as it cuts across various spheres of life be it environmental issues or manufacturing life cycles in industries. The oil industry is however, the mostly affected with expansive use of density and thus the emphasis on the determination of density of materials.

Materials

1. Measuring Cylinder
2. Pipette
4. Water
5. Density meter
6. Materials Used:
8. Regular Shaped Solid
9. Metal Sample
10. Distilled Water
11. Electronic Balance

### Procedure (Method)

The experiment started off by first carrying   out determination of volume of regular objects then that of irregular objects.

1. The mass is determined weighing balance ( Applicable to regular and irregular objects)
2. The volume for use in the experiment is obtained simply by use of a graduated measuring cylinder, a graduated pipette or any other volumetric apparatus.
3. The volume of a regular solid obtained by measuring their dimensions use mathematical formulas to calculate the figures from the measurement.
4. Irregular objects volume  is  then  obtained  through use of water  via immersion
5. Density meter used in the determination  of densities for  liquids

The reaction between a carbonate and an acid forms a salt, carbon (IV) oxide, and water. In This experiment therefore, calcium carbonate reacted with hydrochloric acid and resulted in the formation of calcium chloride, water, and carbon (IV) oxide just as indicted in the following chemical reaction:

CaCO3 + 2HCl          CaCl3 + H2O + CO2

For the rate of the reaction to be measured, one of the products was supposed to be measured, and the rate at which it was being produced was used to determine the rate of the reaction. The experiment progressed and was observed by collecting the carbon dioxide evolved in a gas syringe and recording the volume at regular intervals  based on the below presented diagram:

The variables and/or factors that were changed included the acid concentration, temperature of the acid, and particle size of calcium carbonate (Zhao and Dong et al 239) Concentrated and dilute acid had different impact when they were reacted with marble chips and the time taken to turn the mixture clear also varied depending on the acid concentration. High and low temperatures were also investigated on their impact to the reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid. The experiment also required to use different sizes of marble chips to determine which particle size could react faster as compared to others.

Previous experiments indicated that calcium carbonate when reacted with hydrochloric acid, can turn the acid luminous and that it itself will bubble and turn cloudy. These experiments also had it that time consumed for a particular size of marble chips to disappear completely is used to determine the rate of the reaction.  The rate of reaction according to research can be defined as the speed at which a reaction is expected to occur. Chemically, the rates of reaction is defined as the rate of a chemical reaction that increases when reactants and products concentration is increased and is measured by unit time.  Increase in the concentration, gas pressure, temperature, the surface area, reactants, and use of a catalyst are some of the factors that affects the rate of a reaction.

The experiment commenced by ensuring that the apparatus was gas tight and then clamped up as shown in the diagram in the introduction part above, and the graduated syringe as well as the boiling tube were held in position by the aid of appropriate clamps and six marble chips placed in the boiling tube. A 10 cm3 measuring cylinder was then used to measure exactly 4 cm3 of bench hydrochloric acid. To get the accurate volume of the bench acid, a teat pipette was utilized. The stop watch was then switched on when hydrochloric acid was added in the boiling tube, and the stopper replaced almost immediately (Zhao and Dong et al 246).  The volume of the gas (carbon dioxide) was recorded every 15 seconds for a total of four minutes just as it is shown in the result table.  When the reaction came to completion, the used hydrochloric acid was poured off, taking care not to lose the calcium carbonate.

The gas syringe was rest to zero and using a 10 cm3 measuring again, 4 cm3 of bench hydrochloric acid was measured with the teat pipette being used to acquire exact volume of the acid. The 4 cm3 was then added to distilled water and the teat pipette used to obtain the exact final volume of 8cm3.  The clock was then set on and the step 4 above repeated.

The measuring cylinder was then set to zero and using a 10 cmcylinder, 4 cm3 of bench acid was measured and just as above a teat pipette was used to obtain the exact volume. 4 cm3 of distilled water was measured using a teat pipette to get the exact volume and the two volumes were placed into the second boiling tube which was warmed until the temperature was about 350C.  The apparatus were then emptied and the marble chips tried using a paper towel (Khatmullina, Liliya and Isachenko 871).The same calcium carbonate were crushed by the help of a mortar and pestle and then returned to the boiling tube. The syringe was set to zero, and using a 10 cm3 measuring cylinder, 4 cm3 of bench acid was measured, with the help of a teat pipette so the accurate volume was obtained. The volume of the acid was then added to the crushed marble chips in the boiling tube and the stopper replaced immediately.

### Calculations:

Density = M/V

Regular solid – 173.084g/318.226cm^3 = 5.43903×10^-1

Metal Pellets- Mass = 50.046g

Volume – 27.2mL – 20.0mL = 7.20mL

50.046g/7.20mL= 6.95mL

Percent error= (6.95g/mL – 6.80)/6.80 X 100 = 2.21%