ENGR8752 Engineering Physics And Materials

ENGR8752 Engineering Physics And Materials

ENGR8752 Engineering Physics And Materials


Research project is an important part of this topic and has 20% of the total mark. The aim of the project is to demonstrate certain aspects of engineering materials in different applications.



There is a strong competition in the vehicles’ manufacturing industries leading to a greater variety of the model. The high competition leads to the high development activity to raise the output, decrease the costs and meet the needs of the customers. The major important design that tends to meet the above requirements is the application of the lightweight design. A sheet metal forming is the main important process in the automotive industries and is very sensitive to the properties of the materials also the application of the materials need the attention of both engineers and designers. In this research paper, the development of materials used in the automotive industry is discussed.

Automotive is one of the biggest consumers of the materials in the world. The increasing dependability and strength of the cars’ parts are the important and relevant challenge of the materials science. The development of the automotive industry, raising the requirements for the safety and quality of the used materials need the use and formation of new forms. The automotive industry uses the latest advances and inventions to improve the industries in terms of the kinds of the materials that are used for manufacture. Lowering the car weight is because of the need for new, lighter and cost-effective materials

A decision on the material designated from the constituent of the automobile to be invented is made in the view of the functional situations and also the realities of the economy. The requirements of conserving the environment must be met too and the makers of the car are under the pressure to lower the consumption of fuel in the vehicles to cut down the dangerous emission and use the recyclable materials to the greater extent possible. To advance the comfort of driving, it is important to fit more insulation resources to enable the reduction of noise and introduce other materials such as heating systems for the driver and passengers seat and door mirror or the tailgates operated by power. The improvement of the safe driving involves the importance to strengthen the body of the car, systems of brakes, and the tracking system (Arnold, 2016).

In the view of overhead, the producers are struggling to decrease the whole weight of the car by establishing other new resolutions where the prominence are put on the application of the structures with thin walls made of alloys categorized with better mechanical characteristics and raising the content of materials made of the lightweight constituents. Among new materials that enjoy rising range of the use that can be mentioned are composites, foams of metals and the materials applied for the coating insulation with great resistant to abrasive wear (Askeland, 2015).

The selection of materials in the automotive industry is determined by the demands coming from the expectations of the customers and the legal requirements. The materials development use in the future will be governed by the ecological needs such as the reduction of consumption and the disposal of the used vehicle to reduce the costs. The current material distribution in the automobile manufacturer with respect to weight will not change abruptly, and the major reason for this is that ferrous metal, more so steels will play the dormant function in future because of their variability, cost-effective and availability (Board, 2012).

The materials used in the manufacturing of the automobile needs to satisfy many criteria before they are accepted. Some of the standards are the results of the legislation and regulation with the safety concerns, environmental concerns, and the customer’s requirements.

Since there is the high emphasis in the reduction of the greenhouse gases and improving the efficiency of the fuel, the sector of transport, manufacturers of the vehicles, assemblers, suppliers, and the producers of the components are capitalizing in the lightweight resources development, investigation and commercialization. Everyone is moving to the aim of raising the application of lightweight materials and get more permeation of market by the industrial constituents and the structure of vehicles produced from lightweight materials. Since the major problem in the use of lightweight materials in the automobile is their extraordinary price, the urgency is given to the innovations to decrease the cost through the introduction of new materials, technologies, and the procedures of manufacturing (Bode, 2017).

The reduction of weight is a cost-effective way of decreasing the consumption of fuel and greenhouse gases from the segment of transport. It has been shown that every ten per cent of the eliminated weight from the total weight of the vehicle, the economy of fuel is enhanced by seven per cent and this means that every kg of the condensed weight in the vehicle, there is around twenty kilograms of the CO2 reduction. To achieve the construction of lightweight, the automakers have been exploring the replacement of the steel with magnesium, aluminium, foams and composites.  The recovery and recycling of the end of the vehicles’ life that comprise the recovery targets of eighty-five per cent are driving the automobile business to use the technology of lightweight materials to attain the objectives of the recovery. The steel of high strength is responsible for the biggest percentage of all tons of the lightweight materials used, followed by the aluminium and then plastics. In the terms of value, the plastics and their high prices are the largest section in the market followed by the high steel strength and aluminium (Cantor, 2014).

The material characteristic of the steel and ease of production and the low price means that the vehicles made of steel have been the largest share in the market. The alternative materials like the composites and aluminium could be steel secured. The weight of the closures such as the bonnet, door, chassis, and the driveline accounts to the total quantity of the steel and other ferrous metals (Cantor, 2017)

One of the major significant factors that drive the consumers in the industry of automobile is the cost. Since the price of the materials is always determined in the products, it is important to know whether the material has the chance to be chosen for the vehicle’s component. Price comprises the 3 major components; real price of raw materials, value added of the manufacturing, design price and the testing the product. Magnesium and aluminium alloys are more expensive than the currently used cast irons and the steels that they might replace. This is based on their decreased cycle time of manufacturing, improved machines, the capability to have variable and thinner wall dimension closer tolerance of the dimensions and reduced assembly numbers (Davies, 2018). ENGR8752 Engineering Physics And Materials

This is the capability of the vehicle’s assembly to absorb the energy impact. The present style of the materials in the vehicle industry is toward substituting the part of metals by the polymer composites to improve the economy of fuel and weight reduction of the vehicle since the how composites behave in the compression is opposite to metals. Most composites are known by the brittle structure instead of the ductile response to load, while the structure of metals can collapse under the crash or under the impact by folding. The deformation of material and the behaviour of the reformist catastrophe in terms of yield, toughness, strain strengthening, strain at break and elongation are very significant in the absorption of energy of the car hence the thinned walled column are the major components in the design and concept of the locomotive body. The behaviours of materials are important too in the design of the entire car since their plastic collapse is the strategy that is used to lose the kinetic energy of the car in an accident (Elmarakbi, 2013)

The main concerns in the automotive industries are the increased awareness for the environment that comprises the resources protection, CO2 reduction and recycling. The directive of the end of life vehicles purposes to decrease the number of wastes generated from the vehicles after they have scuffled and they are classed as the dangerous wastes until they are treated fully. Using the materials that can be reused and recycled are the ways that can enhance the life cycle of the automobile. This comprises the composites and metals, the arrangement and the procedures of forming of the metal materials are accommodating this reuse and recycle demand. This validates the excessive consideration toward the natural fibre made of composites and new thermoplastic resins that resist high temperature (Elmarakbi, 2012). ENGR8752 Engineering Physics And Materials

It was realized that the present apparatus and the procedures are good for the steel made constituents and a complete redesign of these materials would be required to produce the aluminium constituents. Selection of the materials and the technology for manufacturing impacts the recovery of the automobile infrastructure. It is proved that replacing the steel by aluminium is the composite structures increase the fuel economy, consumption of energy and reduce the life cycle emission of the vehicles (Engineers, 2012).

Issues That Have Influenced The Change In The Materials Used In Motor Vehicles

Environmental constraints; one way of decreasing the emissions from the cars is by decreasing their consumption of fuel. Consumption of fuel can be improved by raising the efficiency of thermodynamics of the engine but the beneficial gains can be attained by lowering the vehicle’s weight and its aerodynamic drag. To achieve reduction of weight, materials of greater performances are needed with great properties of strength, higher stiffness to allow the lightweight load bearing structures to be produced.  Also, materials with improved capabilities such as moulding enable greater freedom of design in the production of complex shapes for the enhanced aerodynamics hence reduce the consumption of fuel (Engineers, 2011).

Performance enhancement and economic demand; the raising need to recycle and reuse the materials have put more pressure on the manufacturer of motor vehicles. The disassembly of the vehicles is of great importance on the use of the separate components that can be maintained easily or replaced. This increases the initial price of the car by the cost of life cycles of the vehicles reduces. To achieve all these objectives, materials have to possess the long-term performances and can be attained by the use of improved quality materials (Engineers, 2016).

High strength, energy intensity, manufacturability, resistance to corrosion, maintainability, and the lowest weight of the car body are also the factors that are to be considered when choosing materials to be sued in the automobile industry (Gibson, 2016)

History Of Auto Materials

The first car was designed in the year 1885 by the Benz Karl. The steel was used to makes the tubing and the panels of wood were used to create the compartments of the driver. The vehicle was powered by the petrol engine joined to 3 wheels of steel and the tyres of rubber. The die stamping company and the US metal made the first vehicle of their wheels. The car was cost effective, less time of production, and stronger than the combination of steel and wood. The first study of the lightweight structures was done during the 1st world war when aluminium was invented by Marmon, an automobile manufacturer in America. The fibre glasses composite were used 1st on the sport of Bill Lancer in 1985 and in the year 1959 lotus manufactured the 1st car with both body of lightweight fibreglass and the structure with a mass of 773kilograms.

Metallic constituents are very accountable for around 80% of the entire mass of auto, with the others subsidized by the paints, plastics, textiles and rubber. The group of the metallic materials used by the industry of automotive comprises the cast iron, steel, aluminium alloy, and sintered metals, composite materials based on metals, magnesium alloy and many metallic and ceramic coating (Kainer, 2013).

The alloys of iron-carbon are used to strengthen section profiles and the sheets of the car body, components of the engines such as the joining rod, valve seats, crankshafts, camshafts, connector body, drive shafts, fuel tank, flywheel and opinions. The sintered metals are applied for the controller seats since they partake greater enactment when related to the valve seat made of the steel. The study and tests proved that the favourable characteristics can be recognized to the valve seat. The sintered seat is comprised of the cobalt, carbon, nickel, molybdenum, magnesium, zinc, titanium and the chromium.

The aluminium alloys are applied for the frames of a car body, clutch housing, steering wheels, components of the cooling systems, structures of the door, a housing of the gearbox, housing of pumps, components of the ignition systems, liners of cylinders, engine bracket and cylinder heads, rim wheels and pedal. The share of the aluminium alloys to make the components of the car increases continuously which has the good impacts comprising the reduction of the weight of the car. Aluminium’s use in the autos and commercial cars is increasing because it provides the fastest, environmentally friendly, safest and cost-effective way of raising the performance boost the economy of fuel, decrease the emissions, while at the same time improving and maintaining durability and safety. Benefits of aluminium are (Kaiser, 2011);

  • Continuous growth; aluminium has grown for more than 40 years in the automobile industry and is the second after steel as the most materials in the automobile industry.
  • Recyclability; at the end of the life of the vehicle. More than 90% of the aluminium is recycled.
  • Energy efficiency; compared to other materials used in making the vehicles, aluminium save around one hundred and eight million of the crude oil
  • Safety; aluminium can captivate double the energy crush of the steel. Primarily structure weight saving enables other systems of the vehicle to be economized comprising the transmission, engine, wheel and suspension.
  • Performance; aluminium is lighter and enables the body structure of an automobile to increase the dent resistance since they can construct the panel body thick and decreasing the weight at the same time. The vehicle with lowered weight has a good hastening, good handling and braking. Also, the lightweight vehicles can drag and tow more since the engine is not carrying the weight unneeded.

Aluminium alloy sheets are less formable than the steel because of their less elongation shape formed by the steel cannot be formed by the aluminium alloy without causing wrinkling, cracking and spring back. The alloy of the aluminium exhibit the proof tensile strength and stress even though their elongation is small. ENGR8752 Engineering Physics And Materials

Stretchability; limit drawing height is the height where the fracture happens when the rectangular blank is formed by pressing using the spherical head punch. The results displayed that the stretchability of aluminium alloy is inferior compared to the steel. The alloys of aluminium for the automotive structures need formability, strength, corrosion resistance and weldability. For the weight reduction, aluminium sheets are applied in many automotive parts such as the structural parts and the panels. The alloys serve to lower the weight and cost hence they can replace steel (Lehmhus, 2013). ENGR8752 Engineering Physics And Materials

Enough formability is the requirement of the aluminium sheets to generate difficult stampings at the required rates. The aluminium alloys selected for the external panels must be capable to age hardening to offer more power for the resistance dent during the baking over paint. For the aluminium to be used in automotive, it is effective that material display the capability to be cast into the components of leaf proof, good for the passage of water, the flow of air, give good thermal conductivity and enough resistance to mechanical forces at high temperatures. The components are subjected to high mechanical stress from the vibration of the engine and loads of thermal expansion. This has enhanced the investigation to aluminium castings to evade the decreased impact resistance and fatigue. The use of aluminium in the automobile industry has grown for the past years. The heavy parts are being switched from the cast irons to aluminium causing the important reduction of weight (Lipowsky, 2015).

Magnesium alloy: in the opinion of the communal tendency to reduce the entire weight of the car, the magnesium alloys are good materials of the automobile parts. The components strengthened from the magnesium alloys comprises the steering parts and wheels, clutch pedal and brakes, engine and seat frames, the housing of the transmission gear, and blower casing, wheel rims and the dashboard plates. The total mass of the materials made of the magnesium alloys is around 133 kg. Magnesium becomes a relevant material in the automotive industry since its favourable ratio of the density to strength and the ease with which it can be worked into the component of thin-walled using the die-casting pressure. The major challenge of using this material is the recycling and corrosion. The problem of corrosion was solved by the innovation of the alloys HP (Mallick, 2010)

Magnesium is 33% lighters that aluminium and 75% lighter than the cast iron and steel. The resistance of corrosion of present, great purity alloys of magnesium is good than the aluminium alloys. Even though its tensile yield is similar, magnesium has a lesser ultimate strength of tensile, creep and fatigue strength compared to aluminium. The modulus and the rigidity of alloy of magnesium are less and lower compared to aluminium. Specific strength and the stiffness of a structure are significant for the design of a component that saves weight and saving weight is significant in the automotive bodies. The problem of the magnesium alloy is that it is highly reactive in the molten state compared to galvanic corrosion resistance and aluminium. The difficulty in applying the magnesium alloy stem is their low melting point and their reactivity.  (Materials, 2010). ENGR8752 Engineering Physics And Materials

Steel; averagely, 900kilogram of steel is used in every vehicle and is distributed as follows:  24 per cent in the drive train, 34 per cent used in the body structure such as the door, panel and the trunk closures for absorbing the energy in case of the crush. 12% in the suspension and the remainder in the wheels, fuel tank, tires, braking system and steering. The advanced high steel is used for all the designs of the vehicles and AHSS enable the makers of the car to reduce the weight of the vehicle by around 35%. They also save the energy and emissions and represent more than the total quantity of the carbon dioxide during the production of the steel in the car (Maxwell, 2015). ENGR8752 Engineering Physics And Materials

Advanced steel and iron technologies have been seen substantial improvement over the past years and comprised in new redesigns and designs by all automakers. The industry of steel and component dealers are capitalizing in the innovations heavily. The results of the investment are many such as the profitable use of the stainless steel, formulation of iron, high strength steel, fabrications and some techniques. The usage of the steel in the automobile industry demonstrated the reduction of weight plus the improvement of the stiffness, strength, and other characteristics of structural performances. While the engine, chassis and other components made of the materials of ferrous consists the main part of the vehicle by weight, iron technology, lightweight steel, compete with another substitute in their applications. Weight decrease through the improvement in the use of steel and iron is important because they are materials that are dormant. Iron and steel form the important elements of the structures for many cars and are cheaper materials with more familiarity in the industry.

ENGR8752 Engineering Physics And Materials