Fires in Buildings

Part A. (LO 3) Effect of fire on people The mean thermal inertia of skin has been estimated as 1.7 kW s1/2 m-2 K-1. The following formula estimates the surface temperature of skin exposed to a constant heat flux: 1995 Physiol. Meas. 16 213 (http://iopscience.iop.org/0967-3334/16/4/002) How would the œthermal penetration depth of skin vary with time for someone entering a room-fire environment? If the heat flux to the skin was a steady 100 J m-2 s-1 when would a person with normal pain threshold and skin texture experience pain or a burn: Data from NIST: º C Response 37 Normal human oral/body temperature 44 Human skin begins to feel pain 48 Human skin receives a first degree burn injury 55 Human skin receives a second degree burn injury 62 A phase where burned human tissue becomes numb 72 Human skin is instantly destroyed Part B. (LO 3) Impact of explosions on people Critically review what barotrauma is and how it might be related to Boyles Law. Explain how ˜scaled range’ is computed and used in assessing the effects of an explosive on people (primary blast effects, in particular), property & environment.

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