Start w/conclusion – “proving” backwards vs.start w/evidence – building proof. -1)ask a question 2)research evidence 3)construct a hypothesis 4)test the hypothesis 5)analyze test results 6)draw a conclusion(s) -Built on evidence to refine an argument that leads to a conclusion. -focused on a single topic. -reports information. -makes a request/recommends action. -professional writing – formal, “dry” tone, no first person language (3rd only). *memo ≠ essay. -summarize the problem/issue that you will explore (1 paragraph). -Set out all important background facts through summary/narrative (what is relevant?). -Set out both versions if there is a dispute. -be as brief as possible (1-2 paragraph). -provide a dispassionate discussion of the issues and the relevant consequences of various decisions/choices/options. -address critiques (don’t ignore the other side). *this is the central part/purpose of the memo (3-5 paragraphs). -Conclusion : Summarize the point of the memo (recap). -Explicitly state the best solution to the problem (what should be done). -Summarize your predictions about the issue (what is still needed, what could change) (1 paragraph).