Give me liberty.
Give me liberty Order Description DISCUSSION QUESTIONS HOW TO TURN IT IN: In class, in paper form, NO EXCEPTIONS! FORMAT: a. Two page essay b. Have a thesis which demonstrates a change over time c. A strong UNDERLINED thesis (a thesis is one sentence). d. 12 point times roman font e. Cite everything in Chicago style format f. Topic sentences that tie your evidence to the thesis (Make sure the language of each topic sentence is taken directly from the thesis!) g. Evidence from ALL OF THE FOLLOWING ONLY: Give Me Liberty, Zinn, critical book review presentation, Lecture (discussions), and 2 primary source presentations MINIMUM! h. Minimum of 6 citations 1. After each round of presentations, you will have to turn in a paper written with a thesis based on the topics covered by the presentations and the readings. Make sure you show up to class in order to take notes which will inform your papers. 2. Try to hone in one element to discuss which will enrich your paper. THINGS TO DOUBLE CHECK 1. Do not use œI œMy œtoday œnow or œWe 2. Do not use contractions (Can’t, couldn’t etc) 3. Only capitalize a word if necessary 4. Do not give a book report, it is an essay 5. No quotes or citations in a topic sentence 6. Do not include cited material in the opening paragraph 7. Take a stand, no weak thesis or topic sentences 8. It is a history paper, everything should be in the past tense. 9. Include direct quotes that are less than two lines long that support your answer. 10. Write a sentence or two to explain each quote. 11. Conclusion paragraph should explain how the evidence and findings support your thesis. also l have some notes what l have seen students during the presetantion. either way l can send you the notes by the email or here? ”“ For the notes, l have taken during the presentation since then. Notes: Chapter 3 œWilliam Penn, Pennsylvania Charter of Privileges and Liberties (1701) o Source: œFrancis N. Thorpe, The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Lawso The last English colony to be established in the seventeenth century was Pennsylvania ¢ Founded in 1680 by William Penn o As a devoted Quaker, Penn envisioned the colony as a place where those facing religious persecution in Europe could enjoy spiritual freedom ¢ Believed God dwelled in all people, not just the elected o The government had no right to enforce any particular form of religious worship o Penn drew up a Frame of Government in 1682 ¢ Proved unworkable ¢ In 1701, replaced with a Charter of Liberties ? Established a political system that lasted until the American Revolution o Penn cherished the principles of religious toleration, but it limited officeholding to Christians o It also established an elected legislature and promised that colonists would enjoy the same rights as œfree-born subjects of England œNathaniel Bacon on Bacon’s Rebellion (1676) o Occurred in 1676 o Nathaniel Bacon, a wealthy and ambitious planter o Largest popular revolt in the early English colonies o Governor William Berkeley had an alliance with an inner circle of tobacco planters ¢ Heavy TAXES reduced the prospects of small farmers o Colonists were angered by Berkeley’s refusal to allow white settlements in areas reserved for Indians ¢ Colonists saw landownership as central to freedom o Settlers demanded that the governor authorize the extermination or removal of the colony’s Indians to open more land for the whites ¢ Berkeley refused ¢ Rebellion began o Bacon called for¦ ¢ The removal of all Indians from the colony ¢ A reduction of TAXES ¢ An end rule of œgrandees, and rapidly gaining support from¦ ? Small farmers ? Landless men ? Indentured servants ? Some slaves o The uprising failed o Frightened authorities reduced TAXES and adopted more aggressive Indian policy ¢ Opening western areas to small farmers ¢ Also accelerated the shift from indentured white labor to African slaves œLetter by an Immigrant to Pennsylvania (1769) o 110,000 Germans formed the largest group of newcomers to the British colonies in the 18th century o The desire for religious freedom inspired many migrants ¢ Primary motivation for emigration was economic o German areas of Europe were plagued by persistent agricultural crises ¢ Families found it hard to acquire land o The letter describes the response of many immigrants to life in America œAn Apprentice’s Indentured Contract (1718) o Young men learned a trade by apprenticing them o This just shows the contract that an indentured servant signed and what his responsibilities are œMemorial against Non-English Immigration (1727) o People are outraged by the number of people traveling to the Americas o Talks about how most people who travel to the New World, keep the customs of their home country o Talking about from what country people are arriving from œComplaints of an Indentured Servant (1756) o Written by an indentured servant in mid-eighteenth-century Maryland, Elizabeth Sprigs, to her father John Spyer in England o Sprigs had some sort of falling out with her father ¢ Describes¦ ? Constant labor ? Poor food and living conditions ? Physical abuse œWomen in the Household Economy (1709) o The household economy of eighteenth-century America, the family was the center of economic life ¢ Most work revolved around the home ¢ All members (men, women, and children) contributed to the families livelihood o Describes the lives of free Carolina women and the numerous kinds of labor they performed Chapter 4 œOlaudah Equiano on Slavery (1789) o Era’s most popular account of the slave experience o Olaudah Equiano, the son of a West African village chief ¢ Kidnapped by slave traders in the 1750s o Describes¦ ¢ His capture ¢ Encounter with other African peoples he never knew before ¢ Passage to the New World ¢ Sale in the West Indies o Went on to purchase his freedom o 1492-1820, 7.7 million Africans transported to the New World arrived between 1700-1800 o Every European empires used slave labor and fought for control over this profitable trade o Series of triangular trading routes crisscrossed the Atlantic ¢ Carrying British goods to Africa and the colonies ¢ Colonial slave-grown products to Europe like¦ ? Tobacco ? Sugar ? rice ¢ Slaves from Africa to the New World œAdvertisements for Runaway Slaves and Servants (1738) o Source: Pennsylvania Gazette, July 1738 o Indentured servants and slaves frequently expressed their desire for freedom by running away o Sometimes escaped together, despite racial differences o Slaves served for life while indentured servants earned their freedom after a number of years o Pennsylvania was a frequent refuge for fugitives from neighboring Maryland, where slaves and servitude were more deeply enforced o This was an announcement in the paper œThe Independent Reflector on Limited Monarchy and Liberty (1752) o A monthly magazine in New York, founded in 1752 o Source: The Independent Reflector (New York) o The idea of œfreeborn Englishman in the eighteenth century, was powerfully entrenched in the outlook of both the colonists and the British o Liberty was seen as what made the British Empire distinct. More than any other principle o Shows an example of the era’s many paeans to the œinexpressible charm of liberty and how England was its œdefender o The author contrasts the national prosperity and personal happiness enjoyed by citizens of a œfree state with the sorry condition of subjects of absolute monarchy ¢ Free state- a limited monarchy in which freedom of speech and religion were protected o Until the 1770s, most colonies believed to be part of the freest political system humankind has ever known œThe Trial of John Peter Zenger (1735) o Source: The Trial of John Peter Zenger (London, 1765) o Under British and colonial law, the government could not censor newspapers, books, pamphlets before they ended up in print o Though authors and publishers could be prosecuted for œseditious libel ¢ Seditious libel- a crime that included defaming government officials, or punished for contempt of public authority o John Peter Zenger, German born printer ¢ His newspaper, the Weekly Journal, lambasted New York’s governor for corruption and œtyranny ¢ Arrested and put on trial for seditious libel o Judge instructed jurors to only consider if Zenger published the offending words o Andrew Hamilton, Zenger’s attorney, told the jury that the œcause of liberty was at stake o Zenger was found not guilty o The outcome was demonstrated that the idea of free expression was becoming ingrained in people’s thoughts œThe Great Awakening Comes to Connecticut (1740) o Beginning in the 1730s, a series of religious revivals known as the Great Awakening sweeps through the colonies o The revivals were united by a commitment to a œreligion of the heart ¢ A more emotional and personal Christianity than that offered by existing churches o George Whitefield sparked the Great Awakening o Two years after his arrival in America in 1739, Whitefield brought his highly emotional brand of preaching to colonies from Georgia to New England o This was written by Connecticut farmer, Nathan Cole. o He wrote this after hearing Whitefield preach œPontiac, Two Speeches (1762 and 1763) o Winning the Seven Years’ War, confirmed in the Treaty of Paris of 1763, established British preeminence in North America east of the Mississippi River o To Indians, it was clear the abrupt departure of the French from Canada and the Mississippi and Ohio valleys, and the continued expansion of the British settler population, posed a dire threat o 1763, Indians of the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes launched a revolt against British rule o Although known as Pontiac’s Rebellion, named after an Ottawa leader, much of the rebellion was thanks to a Delaware religious prophet named Neolin ¢ Urged Indians to fight for their lost independence o 1763, Indians seized several British forts and killed hundreds of white settlers who had intruded onto Indian lands o British forces soon launched a counterattack, one by one the tribes made peace o Uprising laid the groundwork for future resistance A People’s History of the United States Chapters 1 & 2 Chapter 1 o Opens w/ Christopher Columbus landing in the New World o Describes how the natives, Arawaks, ran to greet them, brought food, water, and gifts o Columbus says how ignorant he believes the natives to be, i.e.¦ ¢ How they don’t have œproper weapons made of iron like the Europeans ¢ How he believes they are stupid for cutting themselves with a sword o Says how they would make fine servants ¢ Brags how 50 European men could take them over and make them do whatever they want o Arawaks were much like the Indians on the mainland ¢ Known for their hospitality, and their belief in sharing ? These traits did not stand out in Renaissance Europe ¢ Dominated by the religion of popes ¢ The government of kings ¢ The frenzy for money that marked Western civilization o Gold was becoming the new mark of wealth, more useful than land because it could buy anything o The information that Columbus wanted most was to know where the gold was in America ¢ He had persuaded the king and queen of Spain to finance the expedition ? He expected all the wealth and riches to be on the other side ? If Columbus had a successful voyage, the king and queen promised¦ ¢ 10% of the profits ¢ Governorship over newfound lands ¢ The fame that would go with a new title: Admiral of the Ocean Seas o Columbus would’ve never made it to Asia ¢ Imagined the world to be smaller ¢ He was thousands of miles farther away than he had calculated o Columbus took the some Arawak Indians as prisoner onboard his ship because he insisted they take him to the source of gold o Out of timber from the Santa Maria (one of Columbus’s ships), he built a fort ¢ The first European military base in the Western Hemisphere ¢ Named Navidad (Christmas) o Columbus second expedition aimed to gather slaves and gold o He commented about how the natives weren’t ashamed of not being clothed ¢ Later wrote how he couldn’t wait to send all the slaves that he could o The Arwaks tried to put together an army of resistance, but was not successful ¢ When Spaniards took prisoners, they hanged or burned to death ¢ Among the Arwaks¦ ? Mass suicides began ? Infants were killed to œsave them from the Spaniards ? In two years through murder, mutilation, or suicide, half of the 250,000 Indians were dead o Women in Indian society were treated so well, it startled the Spaniards Chapter 2 o Racism played an important role in United States history o In the English colonies, slavery developed quickly into a regular institution o The Virginians of 1619 were desperate for labor ¢ To grow enough to stay alive ¢ Grow corn for subsistence ¢ Tobacco for export o Although Indians worked with the settlers before, they couldn’t force the Indians to work for them ¢ Outnumbered ¢ While they could easily massacre the Indians, they knew they would face massacre in return ¢ Could enslave the Indians, but the settlers knew Indians were resourceful in the woods, while the settlers were not ¢ Black slaves were the answer o By 1619, a million blacks had already been brought from Africa to South America and the Caribbean, to the Portuguese and Spanish colonies, to work as slaves o African American’s helplessness made enslavement easier ¢ Indians were on their own land ¢ Whites were in their own European culture ? Blacks were torn away from their land and culture ? Their culture being obliterated bit by bit except for the very few things they could save o Many slaves died while being transported in ships ¢ Kept in spaces about as big as a coffin ? Some in different stages of suffocation ? Many dead, some having killed others in desperate attempts to breathe ? Many slaves jumped overboard to drown rather than suffer anymore o First the Dutch, then the English dominated the slave trade o Some Americans in New England entered the business ¢ 1637, America had their first slave ship, the Desire o By 1800, ten to fifteen million blacks had been transported as slaves to the Americas o The swift growth of plantation slavery is easily traceable to something other than natural racial repugnance ¢ The number of arriving whites, free or indentured servants, was not enough to meet the need of the plantations ? By 1700 in Virginia, there were 6,000 slaves, 1/12th of the population ? By 1763, there were 170,000 slaves, about ½ of the population o From the beginning, black men and women resisted their enslavement ¢ One form was running away o 1687, Virginia’s Northern Neck, a plot was discovered in which slaves planned to kill all the whites in the area and escape during a mass funeral o Sometimes whites were involved in the slave resistance Give Me Liberty Chapter 3 & 4 Chapter 3 o In the last quarter of the seventeenth century, a series of crises rocked the European colonies of North America o Social and political tensions boiled over in sometimes ruthless conflicts between¦ ¢ Rich and poor ¢ Free and slave ¢ Settler and Indian ¢ Members of different religious groups o Struggles between European Empires echoed in the colonies ¢ Aggrieved groups seized upon the language of freedom to advance their goals o The bloodiest and most bitter conflict occurred in southern New England ¢ 1675, Indian alliance launched attacks on farms and settlements that were on Indian lands ¢ Most dramatic and violent warfare in the region in the entire seventeenth century o New Englanders described the uprising’s œmastermind was a Wampanoag leader Metacom (known to the colonist as King Philip) ¢ Most tribes fought under their own leaders o 1676, Indian forces had attacked nearly half of New England’s ninety towns ¢ 12 in Massachusetts were destroyed o As refugees fled eastward, settlements were pushed back to almost the Atlantic coast ¢ 1,000 settlers out of a population of 52,000 perished in the fighting ¢ 3,000 of New England’s 20,000 Indians perished in the fighting o Mid-1676- A ferocious counterattack broke the Indians’ power once and for all o Although the uprising united numerous tribes, others remained loyal to the colonist o The Iroquois provided military aid to the colonists to solidify a developing alliance with the government of New York o Together, Indian and colonial forces inflicted devastating punishment on the rebels ¢ Metacom was captured and executed ¢ Indian villages were destroyed ¢ And captives (including men, women, and children) were killed or sold into slavery in the West Indies ? Most of the survivors fled to Canada or New York ? œPraying Indians-about 2,000 Indians who had converted to Christianity and lived in autonomous communities under Puritan supervision-suffered ¢ They were removed from their towns to Deer Island in Boston Harbor ¢ Said it was for their own protection ¢ Many died from disease and lack of food o Although both sides committed atrocities in the war, the image of Indians as being bloodthirsty savages became firmly entrenched in the New England mind o In the long run, the war produced a broadening of freedom for white New Englanders by expanding their access to land ¢ This freedom rested on the final dispossession of the region’s Indians Chapter 4 All the notes on this chapter are with A People’s History Ch 2 Voices of Freedom Chapter 5 œVirginia Resolutions on the Stamp Act (1765) o 1765, Parliament passed the Stamp Act ¢ Inspired the first major split between colonists and Great Britain o Great Britain was in huge debt because of the Seven Years’ War ¢ For the first time attempted to raise money from direct TAXES in the colonies rather than through the regulation of trade o The act required that all sorts of printed material produced in the colonies carry a stamp purchased from authorities o By imposing the stamp TAX without the colonial consent¦ ¢ Parliament directly challenged the authority of local elites ? Through the assembly that the local elites controlled, they had established their power over the raising and spending of money ¢ Were ready to defend this authority in the name of liberty o Virginia’s House of Burgesses approved four resolutions ¢ They rejected the last three resolutions ¢ Including one calling for outright resistance to unlawful taxation œNew York Workingmen Demand a Voice in the Revolutionary Struggle (1770) o Describes how ordinary workingmen in New York City claimed the right to challenge the city’s prominent merchants in determining how far resistance should go o The struggle against British taxation measures of the 1760s greatly expanded the boundaries of colonial politics o In the aftermath of the Townshend Act, leaders in several colonies announced a boycott of British goods ¢ Hoped to pressure British merchants to persuade their government to repeal the measures ? Townshend Acts- a series of taxes imposed by Parliament on the American colonies o 1770, colonial merchants and Americans who didn’t want to do without British goods, decided to resume trade œAssociation of the New York Sons of Liberty (1773) o During the Stamp Act of 1765, The Sons of Liberty of New York City were one of many groups that popped up during the time o Led by talented and ambitious lesser merchants who enjoyed no standing among the city’s craftsman, laborer, and sailors o The Sons took the lead in enforcing the boycott of British imports ¢ Led to Parliaments repeal of the act ¢ Led to a second boycott directed against the Townshend Duties of 1767 o 1773, Parliament passed the Tea Act, the Sons again organized resistance ¢ December 15, the Sons of Liberty announced an agreement or association to resist the Tea Act ? The agreement accused Britain of trampling on the freedom of the colonists and threatening to reduce them to œslavery œFarmington, Connecticut, Resolutions on the Intolerable Acts (1774) o Parliament responded to the Boston Tea Party by passing a series of coercive laws ¢ Closed the port of Boston to all trade until the tea had been paid for ¢ Radically altered the Massachusetts Charter of 1691 ? Curtailing town meetings and authorizing the governor to appoint previously elected members of the council ¢ Empowered military commanders to lodge soldiers in private homes o These measures, which Americans called the Intolerable Acts, destroyed the legitimacy of the imperial government in the eyes of many colonists o Oppositions now spread to small towns and rural areas that had not participated actively in previous resistance o May 1774, 1,000 residents of Farmington, Connecticut erected a liberty pole and stated resolutions that claimed they were the œsons of freedom ¢ Accused the British ministry of being œinstigated by the devil ¢ Especially in New England, the cause of liberty had become the cause of God œThomas Paine, Common Sense (1776) o A emigrant from England who offered the most persuasive argument for American independence o Paine arrived in Philadelphia late in 1774 ¢ Quickly became associated with a group of advocates for the American cause o It began with an attack on the principles of hereditary rule and monarchial government ¢ Drew on the colonists’ experiences to make his case for independence o Within the British Empire, America’s prospects were limited; trading freely with the entire world, its future prosperity was certain o With independence, the colonies could for the first time insulate themselves from involvement in the endless imperial wars of Europe o Paine pointed out the historical importance of the American Revolution o Paine pioneered a new style of political writing o Common Sense quickly became one of the most successful and influential pamphlets in the history of political writing œJonathan Boucher’s Argument against Independence (1775) o An English-born Episcopal minister o Preached in Virginia from 1759-1775, when he returned to England after receiving death threats because of his loyalty to the crown o 1797, published in London a series of sermons he had delivered in 1775 explaining his opposition to the revolutionary movement o Exemplified the conservative Loyalist movement that opposed American independence A People’s History of the United States Chapter 3 o 1676, Bacons rebellion ¢ Virginia colony faced a rebellion of white frontiersman along with slaves and servants ¢ So threatening the governor had to flee the burning capital of Jamestown ¢ England decided to send a thousand soldiers across the Atlantic, hoping to maintain order among forty thousand colonists o Bacon’s Rebellion began with conflict over how to deal with the Indians, who were close by, on the WESTERN FRONTIER, constantly threatening o Whites who had been ignored when huge land grants around Jamestown were given away had to go west to find land ¢ There they encountered Indians o The desperation of the government in suppressing the rebellion seemed to have a double motive ¢ Developing an Indian policy that would divide Indians in order to control them ¢ Teaching the poor whites of Virginia that rebellion did not pay ? Showing a superior force, by calling for troops from England itself, by mass hanging o Bacon became a symbol of mass resentment against the Virginia establishment ¢ In the spring of 1676, elected to the House of Burgesses o Bacon’s œDeclaration of the People of July 1676 shows a mixture of populist resentment against the rich and frontier hatred of the Indians o The rebellion didn’t last long after Bacon died o A ship armed with guns, became the base for securing order ¢ Its captain, Thomas Grantham, used force and deception to disarm the last rebel forces ? He found four hundred armed Englishmen and African Americans, a mixture of freeman, servants, and slaves ¢ Promised to pardon everyone ¢ Give freedom to slaves and servants ¢ Once they got on the boat, they were disarmed and eventually they delivered the slaves and servants to their masters ¢ Twenty-three rebel leaders were hanged o There was a complex chain of oppression in Virginia ¢ Indians were plundered by white frontiersmen, who were TAXED and controlled by the Jamestown elite o Whole colony was being exploited by England ¢ Bought the colonists’ tobacco at prices they dictated ¢ Made one hundred thousand pounds a year for the king o The servants who joined Bacon’s Rebellion were part of a large underclass of miserably poor whites ¢ Came to the colonies from European cities whose governments were anxious to be rid of them o In England, the development of commerce and capitalism in the 1500s and 1600s, the enclosing of land for the production of wool ¢ Filled the cities with vagrant poor ¢ And from the reign of Elizabeth on laws were passed to¦ ? Punish them ? Imprison them in workhouses ? Exile them o In the 1600s and 1700s by forced exile, lures, promises, lies, kidnapping, and their urgent need to escape the living conditions of the home country¦ ¢ Poor people wanting to go to America became commodities of profit for¦ ? Merchants ? Traders ? Ship captains ? Eventually their MASTERS IN America o After signing the indenture, immigrants were often imprisoned until the ship sailed, to make sure they did not run away o 1619, the Virginia House of Burgesses provided for the recording and enforcement of contracts between servants and masters ¢ The parties appeared on paper as equals, but enforcement was far easier for master than for servant o Beatings and whippings were common ¢ Servant women were raped o In Virginia in the 1660s, a master was convicted of raping two women servants ¢ Was known to beat his own wife and children ¢ Had whipped and chained another servant until he died ¢ The master was berated by the court, but cleared of the rape charge, despite overwhelming evidence o Masters tried to control completely the sexual lives of the servants ¢ In economic interest to keep women servants from marrying or from having sexual relations ? Childbearing would interfere with work o More than half the colonists who came to the North American shores in the colonial period came as servants ¢ More and more, slaves replaced them, as they ran away to freedom or finished their time ? As late as 1755, white servants made up 10% of the population of Maryland AGAIN AND AGAIN Here are the notes I was telling you about. Make sure you follow the outline for the thesis, topic sentences, and especially the format of the paragraphs. Your first paragraph should describe how the group was before the change. The second paragraph should explain what caused the change. And the third paragraph should explain what happened because of the change. Also, make sure you have all the correct citations and sources used for evidence! Hopefully this helps! paper 1 content is material covered in class up to FEB17 THESIS change over time, cause, era _________ went from _____________ in the _____ era to _____________ in the ______ era because _________________. group before change first after change second reason for change INTRODUCTION thesis. summary of paper. underline your thesis. BODY first paragraph topic sentance œgroup was (before change) in the first era. rest of paragraph gives proof second paragraph topic sentance œreason for change. rest of paragraph gives proof third paragraph topic sentance œgroup was (after change) in the second era. rest of paragraph gives proof CONCLUSION review of paper and conclusions (summary no cited material). SOURCES OF CITATIONS (4 sources)(6 citations) 1 “ primary sources from voices (at least one source) 2 “ readings (at least one from textbooks) 3 “ presentations (at least one critical book review) 4 “ presentations (at least one group presentation) GOOD EVIDENCE facts and figures outcomes of trials ideas of authors ERAS conquest era 1492-1530 colonial era 1530-1760 (you can break this up into early and late) revolutionarey era 1750-1780 CITATION FORMAT “ voices of freedom citation: Adam smith. œWealth of Nations. Eric Foner. Voices of Freedom. (city, state: publisher, year), 43(pg#) critical book review: œtitle of book CBR, date group #, date why the papers are messed up because my teacher doesn’t accept with them completely. Redo them what the notes tomorrow at 7 pm which are in four hours from now. you HAVE TO be SPECFITC type what l have written the paper previous and you have to follow the same path because my revision paper what l redo so l will show it to my professor the proof is that l did. thanks. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS HOW TO TURN IT IN: In class, in paper form, NO EXCEPTIONS! FORMAT: a. Two page essay b. Have a thesis which demonstrates a change over time c. A strong UNDERLINED thesis (a thesis is one sentence). d. 12 point times roman font e. Cite everything in Chicago style format f. Topic sentences that tie your evidence to the thesis (Make sure the language of each topic sentence is taken directly from the thesis!) g. Evidence from ALL OF THE FOLLOWING ONLY: Give Me Liberty, Zinn, critical book review presentation, Lecture (discussions), and 2 primary source presentations MINIMUM! h. Minimum of 6 citations 1. After each round of presentations, you will have to turn in a paper written with a thesis based on the topics covered by the presentations and the readings. Make sure you show up to class in order to take notes which will inform your papers. 2. Try to hone in one element to discuss which will enrich your paper. THINGS TO DOUBLE CHECK 1. Do not use œI œMy œtoday œnow or œWe 2. Do not use contractions (Can’t, couldn’t etc) 3. Only capitalize a word if necessary 4. Do not give a book report, it is an essay 5. No quotes or citations in a topic sentence 6. Do not include cited material in the opening paragraph 7. Take a stand, no weak thesis or topic sentences 8. It is a history paper, everything should be in the past tense. 9. Include direct quotes that are less than two lines long that support your answer. 10. Write a sentence or two to explain each quote. 11. Conclusion paragraph should explain how the evidence and findings support your thesis.