HISTORICAL STUDY: SCOTTISH AND BRITISH

Study the sources below and then answer all the questions. The questions relate to the sources but some require your own knowledge as well. Where recall is needed this is stated in the question. Source A was written by a chronicler in the twelfth century. Source A 1. How useful is Source A as evidence of how Henry II dealt with the barons when he became king? Source B describes the way castles changed during the reign of Henry II. Source B 2. In what ways did castles change during the reign of Henry II? (Use Source B and recall.) CONT ex T 1: m URD R IN TH CATH DRAL : CRO w N , CHURCH AND P OPL e, 1154“1173 Henry’s first act as king was to abolish the barons’ private armies. Even barons who had supported Henry’s mother Matilda in the civil war had to obey the king’s orders. Henry viciously attacked anyone who rebelled against him. The Earl of York lost Scarborough Castle as well as his private army because he did not listen to the king. When Henry II strengthened his castles he thought about comfort as well as protection. The stone keep at Newcastle had individual rooms built into its walls and several fireplaces to keep it warm during the winter. Although it was very expensive and took a long time to build, Henry insisted that his castles include lavatories and pipes which carried water from the well to the tower. [X044/10/01] Page three Marks 4 4 Source C describes the life of a monk in the twelfth century. Source C 3. Describe the life of a monk in the twelfth century. (Use Source C and recall.) Source D explains the quarrel between Henry II and Archbishop Becket. Source D 4. Why did Henry II and Archbishop Becket quarrel? (Use Source D and recall.) [ end of context 1 ] Monks often slept in their clothes so that they were ready to attend services in the middle of the night. In order to keep everyone awake in church, one of the monks would shine a candle on those who had fallen asleep. Monks spent hours praying and singing before the service was over. Afterwards, the monks met at the chapter-house. There the abbot gave them their work for the day including gardening and sheep-rearing. Henry was outraged when Becket defended the rights of Criminous Clerks. The two men had been friends for years and Henry had hoped that his problems with the Church would end once he appointed Becket as Archbishop. The crisis grew worse when Becket told Henry he intended to obey God’s laws before obeying the king’s law. Henry called a meeting to settle the dispute but Becket refused to limit his own power over the Church. [X044/10/01] Page four Marks 4 4 HISTORICAL STUDY: SCOTTISH AND BRITISH Study the sources below and then answer all the questions. The questions relate to the sources but some require your own knowledge as well. Where recall is needed this is stated in the question. Source A explains why the succession of the Maid of Norway caused problems for the Scots. Source A 1. Why did the succession of the Maid of Norway cause problems for the Scots? (Use Source A and recall.) Source B describes what happened when King Edward arrived to attack Berwick. Source B 2. Describe what happened when King Edward arrived to attack Berwick. (Use Source B and recall.) CONT ex T 2: w ALLAC e, BRUC AND TH w ARS O f IND P ND NC e, 1286“1328 When the Maid of Norway was named heir to Alexander III, many nobles believed females could not be rulers. That did not matter to the king because he planned to remarry and to have sons. Unlike women, men could lead their army into battle and defend their kingdom. Besides, everyone knew that there would be difficulties if she married a foreigner because he would take control over the kingdom and some nobles might not like that. Edward arrived at Berwick and ordered his army to surround it. Berwick was the richest and most important town in Scotland but it was also very close to the English border. Edward gave the townsfolk three days in which to surrender. He thought that would give them enough time to realise the danger of refusing. He was furious when they rejected his offer in an offensive and rude way. [X044/10/01] Page five Marks 3 4 Source C describes William Wallace’s rise to importance. Source C 3. Describe how William Wallace rose to importance. (Use Source C and recall.) Source D was written by a Scottish poet in 1375 about the Battle of Bannockburn. Source D 4. How useful is Source D as evidence about the Battle of Bannockburn? [ end of context 2 ] William Wallace first came to public attention when he killed the Sheriff of Lanark. At that time he was described as being œan outlaw or œa bandit by the English chroniclers. Historians are not sure where Wallace went immediately afterwards. The chronicles state that a few months later he launched a successful attack on Ormsby, the English Justiciar for Scotland, at Scone. The English spurred their horses and galloped at the Scots. The Scots met them with a wall of extremely sharp spears and axes. The terrifying noise of battle could be heard for miles. The fight was so hard and fierce that many a brave man was killed in the struggle. [X044/10/01] Page six Marks 4 4 HISTORICAL STUDY: SCOTTISH AND BRITISH Study the sources below and then answer all the questions. The questions relate to the sources but some require your own knowledge as well. Where recall is needed this is stated in the question. Source A is from a letter sent to Mary of Guise in 1551 by a relative. Source A 1. How useful is Source A as evidence about the young Mary, Queen of Scots? Source B explains why many Scots had turned against the French in Scotland by 1559. Source B 2. Why had many Scots turned against the French in Scotland by 1559? (Use Source B and recall.) CONT ex T 3: m ARY , q U ee N O f SCOTS AND TH SCOTTISH R ef OR m ATION , 1540 s “1587 I can assure you that your daughter Mary is the most lovely and charming little queen in all the world! I believe you would have great happiness if you saw her because her talk and behaviour have nothing childish about them now. She has promised me to be as good as she can so that, when you come again to France, you will be pleased. After the marriage of Mary, Queen of Scots, to the Dauphin of France, Mary of Guise took stronger control over Scotland. She used French soldiers to control important places in Scotland. More Frenchmen arrived to help her govern the country. There was an area, just outside Edinburgh, called œLittle France. There were even rumours that Scots would be forced to live in France and that Frenchmen would replace them in Scotland. [X044/10/01] Page seven Marks 3 4 Source C is about the Earl of Huntly’s revolt against Mary in 1562. Source C 3. Describe Huntly’s revolt against Mary, Queen of Scots in 1562. (Use Source C and recall.) Source D is about the Civil War which started in Scotland after Mary escaped from Loch Leven Castle. Source D 4. Describe the Civil War which broke out in Scotland after Mary escaped from Loch Leven Castle. (Use Source D and recall.) [ end of context 3 ] The Earl of Huntly was a cousin of Mary, Queen of Scots. He was furious when Mary gave the Earldom of Moray to her half-brother and not to him. He gathered soldiers and planned to march on Aberdeen. This was the first serious trouble Mary had faced. Soon her half-brother, the new Earl of Moray, defeated and captured Huntly at Corrichie. Mary’s supporters quickly gathered an army after she escaped from Loch Leven Castle. They had never agreed that she should have been forced to abdicate and give up being queen. Although they outnumbered her opponents, they were easily defeated at the Battle of Langside. However, they did not give up, even after Mary fled to England. They were able to bring about the deaths of two of the Regents who had replaced her as ruler. [X044/10/01] Page eight Marks 3 4 HISTORICAL STUDY: SCOTTISH AND BRITISH Study the sources below and then answer all the questions. The questions relate to the sources but some require your own knowledge as well. Where recall is needed this is stated in the question. Source A describes how Scotland was governed before the Union of Parliaments. Source A 1. Describe how Scotland was governed before the Union of Parliaments. (Use Source A and recall.) Source B explains why the Scots were annoyed by the English government before 1705. Source B 2. Why were the Scots annoyed by the English government before 1705? (Use Source B and recall.) CONT ex T 4: AN ND O f AN AULD SAN g: SCOTLAND AND TH TR ATY O f UNION , 1690 s “1715 After 1603 Scotland and England were two separate kingdoms which shared a monarch in London. King James VI compared himself to a creature with two heads because he had two separate governments; one in London for England and one in Edinburgh for Scotland. He and some of the monarchs after him found this very difficult because these governments often wanted different things. Tensions between Scotland and England had grown during the reign of King William. The Scots blamed the English government for the failure of the Darien Scheme in which Scotland had lost most of its money. They also complained that England’s wars with France were ruining Scotland’s trade. Even worse, after suffering these losses, Scotland never gained anything when peace agreements were made. Tensions got worse after Anne became Queen. [X044/10/01] Page nine Marks 4 4 Source C describes the changes brought about in Scotland by the Treaty of Union 1707. Source C 3. Describe the changes brought about in Scotland by the Treaty of Union 1707. (Use Source C and recall.) Source D was written in 1714 by an English visitor to Scotland. Source D 4. How useful is Source D as evidence about the effects of the Union in Scotland? [ end of context 4 ] The Treaty of Union brought great changes not only to the way in which Scotland was governed but also to everyday life in Scotland. Scotland had only 45 Members of Parliament which was a big reduction. Very few Scottish lords were able to stay in Parliament as members of the House of Lords. It was the changes in everyday things which most Scots noticed. For example, the Pound Scots was replaced by the Pound Sterling. Now, the Scottish nobility have gone to London and spend all their time and all their money in England. The Union has opened the door to all English manufacturers and the Scottish ones have gone out of business. Scotsmen send their cattle to England and the money is spent there as well. Soldiers raised in Scotland serve in England so no money comes back to Scotland from them. [X044/10/01] Page ten Marks 4 3 HISTORICAL STUDY: SCOTTISH AND BRITISH Study the sources below and then answer all the questions. The questions relate to the sources but some require your own knowledge as well. Where recall is needed this is stated in the question. Source A explains why it was easy for Irish immigrants to find work in Scotland. Source A 1. Why was it easy for Irish immigrants to find work in Scotland? (Use Source A and recall.) Source B describes the attitude of many Scots towards Irish immigrants. Source B 2. Describe the attitude of many Scots towards Irish immigrants. (Use Source B and recall.) CONT ex T 5: I mm I g RANTS AND ex IL S : SCOTLAND , 1830 s “1930 s Many of the Irish were experienced farm workers and their skills were especially useful in autumn in Scotland as the various crops became ready for harvesting. The immigrants were willing to take whatever work was available. Those Irish who already had family members in Scotland had a place to sleep and most of them had moved to areas where new factories were being built. Irish immigrants were often accused of being unpatriotic and not wishing to fight for Queen and country. In the past, Britain’s greatest enemies had been France and Spain, which were Catholic countries. Irish immigrants and their children remained Catholic and many Scots said this proved they did not want to belong to Scottish society. [X044/10/01] Page eleven Marks 4 4 Source C was written by an unemployed Scottish weaver in 1848. Source C 3. How useful is Source C as evidence about why Scots wanted to emigrate? Source D is about the lives of Scots emigrants to other countries. Source D 4. Describe the lives of Scots emigrants to other countries. (Use Source D and recall.) [ end of context 5 ] The new weaving machines have destroyed our way of life. Once we were respected craftsmen earning enough to keep our families in comfort but now we are expected to become low paid factory hands. What choice is there but to leave Scotland and take our skills to other countries where they are appreciated? Many Scots were given land in the Indian Territory in the state of Nevada. A traveller noticed that many Highlanders were given miserable and useless land. He claimed that some were close to starvation and he hoped he would never have to see such sights again. The traveller went on to record that he had heard that those poor people were willing to work for almost nothing. [X044/10/01] Page twelve Marks 3 4 HISTORICAL STUDY: SCOTTISH AND BRITISH Study the sources below and then answer all the questions. The questions relate to the sources but some require your own knowledge as well. Where recall is needed this is stated in the question. Source A is about the help available to working class people in the early twentieth century. Source A 1. In what ways could working class people deal with poverty in the early twentieth century? (Use Source A and recall.) Source B explains why the Liberal reforms of 1906“1914 improved people’s lives. Source B 2. Why did the Liberal reforms of 1906“1914 improve people’s lives? (Use Source B and recall.) CONT ex T 6: f RO m TH CRADL TO TH g RA ve? S OCIAL we L f AR IN BRITAIN , 1890 s “1951 For those who were poor in the early 1900s there was limited help available. Members of the working class could help themselves by saving some money with a Friendly Society or Savings Bank when they were in work. Some communities got together to form Co-operative Societies which would sell cheap food in a local grocery store. The lives of the young, old, sick and unemployed were improved by the Liberal Government because it took more responsibility for ordinary people than previous governments had. The new National Insurance Act meant that workers who were ill could now receive an income whilst sick. Labour Exchanges were introduced in 1909. The introduction of these improved the situation for many unemployed by helping them to find work. [X044/10/01] Page thirteen Marks 4 4 Source C was written by William Beveridge in 1942. Source C 3. How useful is Source C as evidence about the aims of the Beveridge Report? Source D describes what the Labour Government of 1945“1951 did to set up a welfare state. Source D 4. Describe what the Labour Government of 1945“1951 did to set up a welfare state? (Use Source D and recall.) [ end of context 6 ] The aim of victory is to live in a better country than the one we had; citizens are more likely to concentrate on their war effort if they feel their government will be ready with plans for that better country. The scheme proposed here is in some ways a revolution. Between 1945 and 1951 the Labour Government created reforms which were to set up a welfare state. The National Insurance Act of 1946 improved the previous insurance schemes to help everyone from the œcradle to the grave. They also introduced the National Assistance Act in 1948 to help those who had not made insurance contributions. Families with more than one child were also helped by being paid a weekly Family Allowance. [X044/10/01] Marks 4 4 Page fourteen HISTORICAL STUDY: SCOTTISH AND BRITISH Study the sources below and then answer all the questions. The questions relate to the sources but some require your own knowledge as well. Where recall is needed this is stated in the question. Source A is a poster produced by the government in September 1918. Source A Queen Mary’s Army Auxiliary Corps Women’s Royal Naval Service Womens Royal Air Force 1. How useful is Source A as evidence of the role of women during the First World War? Source B describes changes in popular entertainment after 1920. Source B 2. In what ways did popular entertainment change after 1920? (Use Source B and recall.) CONT ex T 7: CA m PAI g NIN g f OR CHAN ge: SOCIAL CHAN ge IN SCOTLAND , 1900 s “1979 After 1920, although people still enjoyed live variety shows, there was much more entertainment to choose from. Radio broadcasts from Scotland as well as London could be heard by the whole family. 40% of Scottish homes had a radio by 1933. New cinemas appeared all over Scotland; Glasgow alone had 104 by 1938. Italian cafés with the latest decor became increasingly attractive meeting places for young people. [X044/10/01] Page fifteen Marks 3 4 Source C is about unemployment in Scotland in the 1930s. Source C 3. Describe unemployment in Scotland in the 1930s. (Use Source C and recall.) Source D explains the importance of North Sea oil for the north of Scotland in the 1970s. Source D 4. Why did North Sea oil become important for the north of Scotland in the 1970s? (Use Source D and recall.) [ end of context 7 ] Unemployment in Scotland in the 1930s was generally higher than in other parts of Britain. Job opportunities had normally been for men in the traditional heavy industries. When they declined, up to 50% of the workforce became unemployed in towns such as Motherwell and Dundee. Hunger marches raised awareness of the problem but did not create work. When oil was discovered in the North Sea, Britain’s economy was boosted. Thousands of jobs were created around Aberdeen to develop this new industry. When further oil fields opened, a huge oil terminal was built in the Shetland Islands, employing thousands more. Workers had to be brought from all over Britain, from America and from Europe because local people could not fill all these new jobs. [X044/10/01] Page sixteen Marks 3 4 HISTORICAL STUDY: SCOTTISH AND BRITISH Study the sources below and then answer all the questions. The questions relate to the sources but some require your own knowledge as well. Where recall is needed this is stated in the question. Source A describes the tactics used by Unionists to oppose Home Rule. Source A 1. Describe the tactics used by Unionists to oppose Home Rule. (Use Source A and recall.) Source B explains why the Easter Rising failed. Source B 2. Why did the Easter Rising fail? (Use Source B and recall.) CONT ex T 8: A TI me O f TROUBL S : IR LAND , 1900“1923 Fearing the loss of their businesses and trade, Unionists from all over Ireland and Britain signed the Solemn League and Covenant. The promise to stand together was taken so seriously that some men signed the covenant in their own blood! Next, Unionists enlisted the help of powerful politicians; they hoped that by doing so they could fight the Home Rule Bill in Parliament. On Easter Monday the rebels, led by Patrick Pearse, captured the GPO building and announced that Ireland was an independent country. Dubliners working and shopping in the area were unimpressed with this act and refused to join in. News of the rebellion spread across the country but despite this there were few uprisings outside the capital. Without the support of the Irish public the rebels became isolated and were easily defeated. [X044/10/01] Page seventeen Marks 4 4 Source C is taken from an IRA newspaper written in 1919. Source C 3. How useful is Source C as evidence of the start of the Anglo-Irish War? Source D describes the events which led to the Irish Civil War. Source D 4. Describe the events which led to the Irish Civil War. (Use Source D and recall.) [ end of context 8 ] [ end of P art 1: scottish and british contexts ] The Dail Eireann has declared war on England. All Irish soldiers are to report for duty and prepare themselves for battle. Now is the time to strike against our enemies and drive them from our country. All methods of warfare are legal and soldiers are ordered to fire at the English even if this results in loss of life. In October 1921, a meeting was arranged in London to discuss the terms of the treaty. After several weeks of tough negotiations, Michael Collins finally agreed to the partition of Ireland. De Valera and many other Nationalists refused to accept the loss of six counties to Northern Ireland and voted against it. Although most people were tired of war and wanted peace, De Valera promised to fight on when the Dail accepted the treaty. [X044/10/01] Page eighteen Marks 4 3 PART 2: HISTORICAL STUDY: UROP AN AND w ORLD Study the sources below and then answer all the questions. The questions relate to the sources but some require your own knowledge as well. Where recall is needed this is stated in the question. Source A was written by the chaplain to William of Normandy in 1073. Source A 1. How useful is Source A as evidence about William of Normandy’s opposition to King Harold? Source B describes William’s attempts to crush opposition to his rule in the north of England. Source B 2. Describe William’s attempts to crush opposition to his rule in the north of England. (Use Source B and recall.) CONT ex T 1: TH NOR m AN CON q U ST , 1060“1153 News reached us in Normandy that England had lost its king and that Harold had been crowned in his place. William was determined to avenge this insult. He was angry that Harold had broken his sacred oath and had seized the throne on the very day of the dead king’s funeral. King William ordered his men to search the forests and hills to hunt down his enemies. William had never before shown such cruelty towards his opponents. In his anger, he ordered the destruction of all the crops, animals and food of all kinds so that farmland in the whole region north of the Humber was left devastated. 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