Impacts Of Renewable Energy Regulation On The Structure
Impacts Of Renewable Energy Regulation On The Structure
Without it, most things would come to a standstill, economies would crash, and all forms of crises would ensue. Such is the importance that energy has on today’s society. Its bearing felt across the board from national security to world economy (Jiang, 2008).
Due to this, there exists a need for all countries to be able to provide safe, sufficient and reliable energy to its residents. This is done by exploitation of various energy sources that are available to the country in different proportions. This is called energy mixing.Impacts Of Renewable Energy Regulation On The Structure
Because of the developing total populace, riches and the high energy interest for both household and business utilize. The requirement for power has expanded by a current study the 1.3 billion individuals don’t connectivity to power. As of now the greatest supporter of the National framework in China is coal control. As indicated by World Coal Association It represents 41 %. Coal isn’t a clean energy source, this is a direct result of its propel contamination impacts both air and water contamination .consequently we can make a determination this isn’t an enduring energy answer for the nation as we move to interest for all the more clean energy(Chen and Chen,2011).
Supportability of an energy source might be investigated at with a few measurements. Therefore this turns into an unpredictable adjust of profitable in deciding the most important energy source (Wang et.al 2011).
The economics of manufacturing and goods consumption require the utilization of energy, and the utilization of energy influences nature in the types of water contamination, air contamination and discharge of CO2 that causes a worldwide temperature alteration. Moreover, the utilization of energy from expendable assets can make energy deficiency later on(Yuan et.al 2001). The answers for the issues of energy and ecological corruption incorporate diminishing the utilization of energy underway and utilization, expanding the utilization of energy-sparing and earth amicable strategies underway and utilization and advancing mechanical advancements that will lessen the utilization of energy per unit of yield (decrease energy force or increment energy effectiveness) or diminish contamination per unit of yield to accomplish and later on. To accomplish and given the condition of innovation, we can manage the utilization of energy by law or by monetary impetuses to confine the discharge of contaminations (Chen and Chen, 2011).
Issues In The Chinese Energy Sector
China was vastly affected by the global oil crisis which happened in the year 1973. (Ian, 2011). The crisis upset the political and economic landscape throughout the world. The crisis led to the creation of the International Energy Agency.
Some of the issues that still the Chinese energy sector include;
- Over-reliance on coal energy which is generally considered to be an environmental pollutant.
- Hiking of the per capita energy consumption due to economic development and a growing middle-class population. As it stands, china is the second highest consumer only after the United States of America and the third largest importer of oil in the world.
- Over dependency on the importation of oil from Oil Producing and Exporting Countries, since almost half of its oil consumed comes from the Middle East. There is a need for self-reliance in terms of energy production.
- China lacks an adequate oil reserve to serve its needs when fluctuations occur in the global oil marker.
- China has also been affected by rampant fluctuations in oil prices, which has resulted in slow economic growth due to losses made from high energy costs.
- Climatic changes have also adversely affected water levels in hydro-electric power producing plants increasing energy costs in the country.
The characteristic elements of the Chinese energy sector can be as follows; (Jiang, 2008)
- Aims at energy consumption minimization
- Extreme efficiency
- Environmental protection
- Diversification of energy sources
- Technologically advanced
- Compliance with international statutes
Intervention Measures And Their Justification
In China, the following are different sources of energy can be well utilized to alleviate her energy problem;
- Commission more coal power plants.
Over the years, coal has been the country’s largest source of energy. China is also a major coal and coke exporter in the world. Coal is only imported for metallurgical reasons in China. New coal reserves being found could potentially make coal a reasonably reliable power source for China.
However, its future is highly dependent on technological advancements in the field of carbon capture and storage. This is because; coal is a carbon-based fuel which releases undesired carbon (IV) oxide gas into the atmosphere. The gas has been proven to contribute to global warming adversely affecting global climatic zones (Yuan et.al 2001)
|Advantages of Coal as an energy source||Disadvantages of coal as an energy source|
|Coal is arguably well geographically distributed in China.||Generating power using coal involves the release of excessive amounts of carbon (iv) oxide to the environment and other pollutants.|
|Production costs can be relatively easily predicted and they do not fluctuate dramatically.||Should not be used for energy generation units that operate at a peak capacity.|
|Carbon capture and storage technology have the made this resource a cleaner source of energy over the years.||Carbon capture and storage technologies adversely affect plant thermal efficiency.|
- Explore and exploit more Natural gas reserves.
Natural gas is touted to be one of the cheapest, sustainable and safe energy sources in the world. China could accelerate its strides into natural gas consumption. The advent of shale gas exploitation will only increase China’s available options in energy.
|Advantages of Natural gas||Disadvantages of Natural Gas|
|It is a clean source of energy||Its accessibility is a huge hindrance since it is mostly situated in very remote areas or offshore|
|More reserves are being found due to reassessments and the advent of shale gas.||Its exploration usually involves uneconomically long supply routes and expensive infrastructure|
- Construct more Hydro-electric power producing plants.
China is the third largest hydro-electricity market in the world (Council, 2013). It is one of the most utilized sources of energy in the world accounting for about 15% of the global power produced. This source has flourished all over the world in terms of its exploration due to policies that support utilization of renewable energy sources and huge penalties for carbon (IV) oxide emitters.
Identification of more strategic hydro-power plant sites should be done to support the effort (Junfeng and Runqing,2003).
|Advantages of Hydro- electric energy||Disadvantages of Hydro-electric energy|
|It incurs very low operational expenditures||Has a huge capital expenditure required to set up.|
|It is a clean source of energy since there is no carbon (iv) oxide emissions. In addition, no energy is wasted hence is highly efficient.||One requires having a considerably large tract of land for installation of hydro-electricity plants and dams.|
|It is surprisingly a very simple technology that has been proven to work over time.||It is often subject to resistance by the public due to relocation and effects of microclimates.|
- Build a nuclear power plant
Over the years, since the commissioning of the first nuclear reactor in 1954, the world, in general, has slowly been drifting away from this source of energy. This is due to the long approval periods that come along with such projects and also huge installation costs.
However, if meticulously planned and safely executed, it can prove to be a highly reliable cheap source of energy.
|Advantages of Nuclear energy||Disadvantages of Nuclear energy|
|It is a very efficient energy source||It’s accompanied by uneconomical compliance costs and inhibitive capital expenditure.|
|The costs of electricity are very predictable and also moderately cheap over the entire service period of the plant.||Negative perceptions from the public due to past calamities are very inhibitive. There are also strong concerns in regards to the mode of final waste disposal.|
|It’s a carbon-free energy source||There is a high liability costs in cases of nuclear calamities.|
- Install solar farms across the country.
It is basically the largest energy resource available on earth. It can be harnessed in different forms either, directly via solar radiation or indirectly through wind energy, hydro-electricity, and bio-energy and wave energy in the oceans.
It is expected to grow immensely due to increasingly cheaper technologies that are making energy production costs more economical. High-efficiency solar cells are expected to completely revolutionize this subsector of energy generation. China should capitalize on this emerging market to reap the immense benefits.
|Advantages of solar energy||Disadvantages of solar energy|
|It is very reliable since it does not dependent on moving parts for electricity generation.||Power may not be continuously generated, especially during periods of very low or low sunlight,|
|It’s easy to install and dismantle and the process consumes very little time.||It cannot be integrated to the national grid.|
|It is an excellent solution for very isolated regions.||Poisonous materials are used to make solar cells that make up solar panels.|
- Set up more onshore wind turbines
China has the highest capacity in the world in wind energy production with 62 GigaWatts annually at 2011. (Council, 2013). This source of energy is known to be so huge that if only 1% of the resource globally was utilized, it would surpass the energy production in all generation plants combined. It is, therefore, a high potential resource that is severely under-utilized.
If the previous success that China has had on this sector is anything to go by, more wind power farms should be commissioned and placed under operation.
|Advantages of Wind Energy||Disadvantages of Wind energy|
|It employs a very simple technology. Onshore installations and dismantling take a very short period of time.||Its interment energy generation is a huge drawback since it might fail to be a reliable source.|
|It’s a free source of energy and hence there a zero fuel costs. There are also no waste costs.||It’s hard to integrate it into the national grid.|
|It is a clean source of energy suitable for remote regions.||It can only work reliably when integrated with other systems of power generation.|
- Build a bio-energy plant
This is an energy source that mainly involves the conversion of the chemical energy stored in the biological material to produce heat energy, mechanical power or liquid/gaseous based bio-fuels.
Materials like fuelwood, pulp, paper, wood chips, and black liquor fall in this category. In China, these materials can be easily and economically locally sourced. It is, therefore, an attractive sub-sector that should receive a proper share of investments for its advancement.
|ADVANTAGES OF BIOENERGY||DISADVANTAGES OF BIOENERGY|
|No need to import the resource since it is locally available.||Operational costs like transport and biological material processing can prove to be highly inhibitive|
|It employs simple and time-tested technologies for combustion.||Energy generation involves the release of poisonous nitrogen and sulfur based gases like Sulphur (iv) Oxide|
|Bio-fuels can be used in the transport sector hence have a ready market.||It seems counter-intuitive to use water and food for energy consumption as opposed to using it for human consumption.|
- Increasing the budgetary allocation in the energy sector for development of infrastructure
A better infrastructure translates to faster and efficient energy transmission network. This improves the reliability of some sources of energy like natural gas and crude oil.
- Strive to reduce the per capita energy demand
This can be done by increased energy efficiency Resources could be invested in Research and development to come up with high-efficiency power generation and consumption systems. For instance, losses that occur during electricity transmission account for up to 12% and at other times, the figure is higher. High-efficiency systems could make energy cheaper which would definitely positively affect the economy
- Invest in the installation of offshore turbines
China has a vast area of land with shallow shorelines. She is also a world leader in wind power generation. These can be utilized to increase the amount of energy the country produces in a single year. The past success that the country has had in this sector should act as the impetus to more investments in the sector. (Fichaux, 2009)