Introduction to Philosophy.
Introduction to Philosophy 1) Research Kant and Mill (and/or Utilitarianism); develop your explanations of their conclusions and the reasons that they give in support of them; and develop your own reasoning and views on the issues dealt with over/against Kant’s and Mill˜s theories. 2) Aristotle has a different approach to Ethics than either Kant’s, or Bentham’s and Mill’s approach. His approach has been referred to as œvirtue ethics, as opposed to œdeontological ethics, or œteleological ethics. The emphasis is on œvirtues as character traits. Read Aristotle in the Kessler text, and add your research on Aristotle and œVirtue Ethics. Evaluate Aristotle’s and virtue ethicists’ reasoning, and evaluate œvirtue ethics. 3) Choose one of the arguments for the existence of God that we have studied (Ontological, Cosmological, Teleological) and do further research on the argument, including possible problems cited by critics. For example, for the Teleological Arg. (aka, the Design Arg.)do further research on classic and contemporary statements of the argument by Wm. Paley and Richard Swineburn, and the classic critique by David Hume. Explain the argument as fully as possible and critique it œon its merits, considering possible problems cited by critics. 4) Explain and critique Confucius/Confucianism as it is found in the Analects, and research Mozi and Mohism. How do Kongzi and Mozi differ? Explain and critique their positions. Who has the better reasons for their position, in your view, and why? 5) Research œTheodicy, the Greek philosopher, Epicurus, and the œProblem of Evil argument against the existence of God. Explain and evaluate this argument. 6) Research, explain and critique the relationship between contemporary theology and the concept of the œevolutionary cosmos in the sciences, as it is seen, for example, by the theologians, scientists and philosophers who participated in the film, œFaith and Reason. (The position of the Christian thinkers in the film is usually referred to as œevolutionary theism, œtheistic evolutionism., or œguided evolutionismœ) 7) Research the œConflicting Truth-Claims Problem, or the œProblem Of Many Religions. Describe the œProblem ;œstate the skeptical arguments that arise out of it and some possible replies. Describe your own position and support your conclusions. Notes: (1) You need 4 sources, including articles from the Encyclopedia of Philosophy, which are on Reserve in Pfau Library and can be accessed online (the access number is r1s12190), and the Kessler text. And you need to refer to your sources in the body of your Term Paper. So, you need what is called a œWorks Cited page, a œSources Cited page, or a œBibliography page at the end of the Paper ; and notes in the Paper that refer to the books and/or articles on your œWorks Cited page. Kessler always provides lists of books and articles for further reading. There is a lot of literature on the above topics. Use the school Library, and you can use the Internet, along with the Kessler text. You need to demonstrate that you have actually read the œSources that you cite by explaining their contents. (2) The above topics are œpre-approved. If you want to do something else, then you need to provide a typed request, with a Topic; a Thesis regarding it, and a list of Sources for approval. It can be on anything covered in class, or in the text. There are no exceptions to #2. (3) In any case, you must (1) give reasons in support your position/thesis ; (2) consider objections to your thesis cited by critics, and (3) give replies to those objections. (4) Papers are to be written in accordance with relevant œhandouts. They should typed, double spaced, and a minimum of one thousand words long. II. Your Term Paper should have three sections. 1) in the first paragraph briefly state the topic or issues that you will be dealing with and /or the argument(s) that you will discuss in your paper. And briefly state your own position or Thesis regarding the Topic. 2) the main body of the paper should do what you say you will do in the opening paragraph”here is where you display your research and demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of the material: explain positions, lay out arguments, objections, replies, and you give your own defense or support for your Thesis regarding the topic or issues that you are dealing with. 3) in one ending paragraph briefly state what you have accomplished in your paper