Importance of studying the catastrophic depopulation brought about by introduced Old World diseases and their social and cultural consequences to the native local populations of America. In 1942, when Columbus embarked on a journey to discover a new world, he did not have any intention whatsoever to bring misfortunes and suffering to the Native American people. Unfortunately, that is what exactly happened for a very long time after their first interaction with Columbus. It was a severe case of suffering because in some cases, some entire groups of Indian people became extinct. The purpose of this paper is therefore to explore the importance of studying the depopulation catastrophe brought about by the interaction between the Europeans and the Native populations of America.