Language, Culture, and Communication

Language, Culture, and Communication Book: Bonvillain, Nancy. (2014/2011). Language, Culture, and Communication: The Meaning of Messages. Seventh or Sixth Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 1. write the answers to question ( 7-8 sentences): In her introduction to Chapter 3, Language and Cultural Meaning, Nancy Bonvillain writes, œCultural models are expressed in several ways, but language is key to their transmission. (p. 41 or 38) Drawing on examples from Bonvillain’s text, the Gullah tales told by Aunt Pearlie Sue, the video Carved from the Heart, and/or your own experience, explore this key relationship between language and culture. In your discussion, please define your terms and illustrate your points with specific examples. Filmmaker’s Guide to Carved from the Heart Instructions: This guide provides some background on the film. Discussion & Study Guide Carved From the Heart by Ellen Frankenstein & Louise Brady Excerpts: for full guide, see Why We Made This Film We believe this film has a far reaching message and encourage you to share this story in a variety of settings; with young people, elders, and those struggling with substance abuse. Individuals coping with profound losses and Native and Non-Native communities that are striving for understanding and better communication, may also respond to the Healing Heart Totem story. Stan Marsden (carver): “My boy died in 1991 of a cocaine overdose. This was a very hard thing for me to accept. A friend said, ˜Stan why don’t you make a totem pole?’ At that time I didn’t feel like making a totem pole. It was about a year later that I started. A lot of times I wondered why I started the Healing Heart Pole. After awhile, everything was so positive-the way people accepted and helped with the pole. They knew what it stood for. Now, this has reached farther than I really expected and people are beautiful working together.” Jan Marsden (daughter of carver Stan Marsden; sister of Jimmy Marsden): “Telling the stories within the story is how Carved from the Heart came to life. It is a beautiful story of healing brought to life. Pass the story from person to person; to learn from the past and move on from there. Telling all, not to shame, just in attempt to heal. If we carry our past with us and try to make sense of it, we can begin to grow.” Healing Heart Totem Committee: “Stan was talking about carving a pole in his son Jimmy’s honor. He called together the people who wanted to help and the committee was born. Committee members included students, Alaska Natives, Non-Natives, elders, youth, professionals and the self-employed. Stan carved the pole in memory of his son, but he wanted his loss to have greater meaning. He dedicated the pole to all the youth of Alaska, as a symbol of sobriety- of living a drug and alcohol-free life. It is also a symbol of healing from all kinds of losses. The committee assisted with making the film and is committed to continuing the vision of the Healing Heart Totem Pole.” Louise Brady (producer): “Throughout my career working in human services, I witnessed many Non-Native care providers come and go within the Native community. I saw their frustration which came from working in a community that has often been defined by its pathologies rather than its strengths. The cultures in Southeast Alaska have historically been closed communities, with little participation from outsiders. This is extremely unfortunate because even though we, as Native peoples, experience high rates of social problems, to a great extent, we still hold tight to timeless traditions that nourish us and help us survive. I believe this film will give Non-Native providers a glimpse of the strengths that lie within Native communities everywhere and will help those same people to understand that although there are many problems, there are also many strengths which are manifested through our traditions. I believe that ethically, it is the responsibility of these same care-providers to seek out the people that are best able to heal our communities.” Ellen Frankenstein (director): “When Louise Brady heard about the Healing Heart Totem Pole, she wanted to document it and we decided to collaborate on this film. I was drawn to this project because it is rare to see so many people joining together for a positive reason. Participants found the answers in themselves and in their community. They used art to heal and come together. I wanted to help create a film that would carry the story of what happened in Craig, Alaska, to individuals and communities all over.” Background Notes on Southeast Alaskan Native Cultures Southeast Alaska is the setting for this film. It is arguably one of the most beautiful and remote regions in the world. It is covered by the largest temperate rain forest in the world and has been home for thousands of years to the Tlingit (Lingit), Tsimpshian, and Haida peoples. The Tlingit, Tsimpshian, and Haida make-up 19% of the population of Southeast Alaska but are the majority population in the rural communities of Southeast. Although the Tlingit, Haida, and Tsimpshian share some similarities in artistic expression through carving, weaving, singing, and dancing and in their complex, traditional social structures, each tribe remains distinct in language and cultural nuances. Notes on Totem Poles Europeans named the carved, wooden pillars made by the Northwest Coast Native peoples “totem poles.” However, totem poles depicted ancestral pride and never represented tribal gods. Generally the poles commemorated one’s relatives, or told the story of a memorable event. Some were mortuary poles and contained the remains of the dead. Other poles were carved to honor a leader who had recently died. The carving and pole raising ceremonies helped relieve the grief created by this loss. Poles were usually erected at potlatches, at this time the stories of the crests depicted on the poles were told. The meaning behind most traditional poles seen today died with the carver and the person who commissioned the pole. The people involved with the Healing Heart Totem Pole want to keep the story of this pole alive. “We have all kinds of totem poles. Some are for history making. We had totem poles that tell stories about the clan family, but I’ve never heard of a healing totem pole- it’s a good idea.” -Clara Natkong, Haida Elder Notes on Grief “Grief is a reaction to loss and while it is often associated with death, any loss can cause grief. We may grieve divorce, separations, and other relationship losses. Additionally we may grieve the loss of a job¦ any transition, however positive, also may entail loss¦ a move to a new area or even a developmental transition can create a sense of loss¦Grief is experienced in many ways- physically, emotionally, cognitively, spiritually, and behaviorally. Each person will experience grief in his or her own distinct way. – Dr. Ken Doka, “A Primer on Grief and Loss.” “¦how that tree rolled for a while on the waves. Then when it drifted to shore the sun would put its rays on it. Yes. It would dry its grief to the core. At this moment this sun is coming out over you, my grandparents’ mask At this moment My hope is that your grief be like it’s drying to your core.” -Jessie Dalton From “Haa Tuwunaagu Yis, for Healing Our Spirit- Tlingit Oratory” How Groups & Communities have Used the Film ¢ In Sitka, Alaska, college students created an event around the film, including opening remarks by Stan Marsden, the carver. Other speakers talked about making the pole and the film, and about the screening itself. Intertribal drummers also performed. After viewing the film, there was a powerful, round table discussion and a potluck. Facilitators included community leaders and Native and Non-Native counselors. The evening ended with a candlelight march through town and a healing ceremony. ¢ In Kake, Alaska, health and family service workers, police, pastors, and concerned citizens formed a Healing Heart Council. The council organized screenings for elders, youth, and other Kake residents. These screenings also included potlucks, talking circles, and an “old fashioned game night.” They also had the film aired on the local cable channel. An outcome of these activities was to improve the community justice system. To do this, community members received training in “peacemaking circles” “ which take the place of a regular court system to solve judicial matters and disputes. The Kake Peacemaking Circle has become a national model of this system. ¢ At an Alaskan Statewide suicide prevention workshop, participants expanded on the idea of the rose ceremony and taped photos, poems, and wishes onto big sheets of paper. At the end of the conference they burned the paper outside in a fire- “giving loved ones up to God,” as one elder explained. Typical Questions and Answers What is happening with the community and the family now? Stan Marsden continues to carve poles for other communities in Alaska. For the Marsden family and the town of Craig, the Healing Heart Totem Pole remains an important symbol of sobriety, communal healing, permission to express loss, and empowerment to act. Further more, the pole represents that Native cultures are alive and well, continuing to adapt to contemporary concerns. In Craig, there are annual Healing Heart celebrations. “The community is not cured,” explains Cindy Gamble, chair of the Healing Heart Committee, “but many subjects were opened and we took a step forward. Prevention is on-going, although years of habits are not going to be easily changed.” How representative is Craig of other communities in Alaska and the United States? Substance abuse and family violence impacts people across cultures, classes and borders. Small communities may be more interconnected, with family and individual secrets surfacing more easily than in a city. However, communities, and individuals all over face the loss of loved ones and experience racism and prejudice. Barriers to understanding and working together also effect all of us. Is it okay to talk about suicide? Yes, and it might save someone’s life. Suicidal behavior is often a “cry for help.” Research shows that most people who consider suicide do not want to die. They want their pain to end and can not see any other way to stop it. Many people who think about suicide do or say things that indicate their thoughts. Learn the indicators of suicide and if you observe them in someone, let the person know you care. Ask them if they are thinking about suicide and if the answer is yes, find help for this person. Asking about suicide will not put the idea in a person’s head, but will show you heard their cry for help and care enough to respond. Address stereotypes and misunderstandings that viewers may have about Native people, addictions, and domestic violence. Have viewers reflect on how biases and beliefs affect their perceptions of the film’s message. Encourage them to look for universals and to appreciate the distinctive experiences of the people in the film. Also, addiction is a disease. Although a person may choose to use alcohol or drugs, they can’t choose how their body will respond to the substance. Resources and Information “Words from the Heart”- the follow-up video is intended as a reflection of the powerful responses to “Carved from the Heart”. It explores the implications for individuals and communities in witnessing such a profound event. New Day Films “ 888/367-9154. “Healing Heart Totem Pole,” video by Ken Yates. Voyageur Bookstore- 907/826-2333. “Choice of a Lifetime: Returning from the Brink of Suicide,” video by Nila Bogue. New Day Films- 888/367-9154. Native American Post-colonial Psychology, book, by Eduardo Duran and Bonnie Duran. Yuuyaraq: The Way of the Human Being, book, by Harold Napoleon. “Teaching Tolerance”, curriculum “ Fax 334/264-7310; National Mental Health Association “ 800/969-6642; Anti-Defamation League “ 212/490-2525; (racism issues) Alcoholics Anonymous “ 212/647-1680; National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence “ 800/NCA-CALL; National Association for Native American Children of Alcoholics-206/903-6574. National Suicide Hotlin “ 800/784-2433. National Hope Line Network “ 800/784-2433. Youth Crisis Hotline “ 800/448-4663. Teen Advice Online “ Hospice Foundation of America- 800/854-3402; Akeela, Inc. “ 800/478-7738; Alaska Native Health Board “ 907/562-6006. 4 Worlds Development Project- 403/320-7144. National Depressive & Manic-Depressive Association “ 800/826-3632; National Domestic Violence Hotline- 800/799-7233; About the Carver and Filmmakers Stan Marsden, is a member of the Tsimpshian Tribe and lives on Prince of Wales Island in Southeast Alaska. He is also a Master Carver. Marsden began carving as a child and has worked as a full-time carver since the 1990s. He has taught carving for thirty years and has lectured on Native Art. Since the raising of the Healing Heart Pole in Craig, Alaska, Marsden has carved a friendship pole for the elders of Hydaburg, Alaska, and a community pole for Pelican, Alaska. Both projects involved community members in the carving and raising of the poles. Louise Brady is a member of the Lingit Tribe of Southeast Alaska. She is a Raven (Yeil) of the Frog Clan (Kiks.adi) from the Point House (X’aaka Hit) of Sitka, Alaska (Sheet’ka Kwaan). Brady has worked in human services for years, assisting people to overcome the adversities caused by the social problems that exist in Indian Country. She strongly believes in the practice of sovereignty in Native American communities as a means to overcome these problems. These problems exist today as a manifestation of years of oppression and intergenerational grief caused by the imposition of foreign values on traditional Native cultures- which existed and flourished for centuries on Turtle Island before contact! Louise continues to work to the end of achieving true sovereignty for her tribe, as a whole, and for each of its tribal citizens. Ellen Frankenstein is a filmmaker and community artist. She is a member of New Day Films, a national film distribution cooperative of independent media makers. Frankenstein is a Fulbright-Hays Fellow and the recipient of other grants and awards from the National Endowment for the Arts and the Los Angles Department of Cultural Affairs. She has coordinated community media projects and taught in schools from south-central Los Angeles to Southeast Alaska. 2. Please write your response ( 7-8 sentences) to Daniel Greenbaum answer: œWhile culture may have almost infinitely minute aspects to it“ language to be sure, but food, music, architecture, etc.“ none of that culture would survive the leap from generation to generation without language. Language is the vessel by which our most central and core values, ideas and beliefs are shared with our progeny and with each other. For instance, while food is such an integral part of any shared culture, without a shared language it quickly becomes just another item to sample in the world; in other words, instead of being one’s culture, it becomes, “Do we want to go out for Indian or Thai tonight?” Both of these foods are essential to their respective cultures, but without the shared language they are no longer about the transmission of culture. This is illustrated when one listens to the difference between the Gullah Tales in both languages/dialects. I could understand them both, but for me, when she is telling the story in English, the tale becomes one with a moral and a lesson, and something I could then choose to share with others thereby sharing this cultural model of what we as (however small) a circle of culture value in others and ourselves. Whereas in Gullah, it loses its significance for me. Nevertheless, if I spoke Gullah, then it would have that shared cultural significance, and probably more deeply, language would enhance the transmission of the tale. In Jewish culture, the language of Yiddish“ and sharing that language“ transmits a certain part of Jewish life and culture that does not exist any longer, and yet, by using even certain phrases, the Yiddish culture becomes shared and enlivened. Your respond: 3. Answer the test 1 Q1: The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis ________________. (Check all that apply.) A. is quite similar to views about language, thought, and experience espoused by the Marxist linguist V.N. Volosinov. B. was confirmed by experiments conducted with English and Yucatec speakers by John Lucy. C. is a foundational concept in Linguistic Anthropology. D. suggests that language and people’s perceptions of experience are intertwined. Q2: Dell Hymes contributed to the definition of “speech community” by observing that A. speakers are constantly evaluating their own and other’s speech. B. most people belong to several overlapping speech networks. C. the concept is an abstraction and should be replaced by “speech network.” D. sharing grammatical knowledge of a language is not a sufficient criterion for membership. Q3: Please match the following people to the concepts with which they are associated. Match Choice 1. linguistic relativity A. Franz Boas 2. linguistic and cultural relativism B. Henry Lewis Morgan 3. speech community C. Dell Hymes 4. unilineal evolutionary scheme D. Edward Sapir E. Keith Basso Q4: Bonvillain writes that the word “terrorist” conveys symbolic meanings that express shared values and assumptions in order to illustrate a cultural presupposition. True False Q5: Linguistic Anthropologists believe that speakers’ linguistic choices A. are entirely conscious manipulations of others B. are wholly conscious and governed by free will. C. reveal underlying cultural models of behavior, rights, and obligations. D. are biologically determined. Q6: According to Bonvillain, in US society silence is not well tolerated, especially among people who do not know each other well. True False Q7: A special section in West Los Angeles College’s Student Conduct Code pertains to expectations of on-line students. True False Q8: According to Nancy Bonvillain, the meanings transmitted by language are __________, social, and cultural. A. spontaneous B. acoustical C. poetical D. situational Q9: According to Bonvillain, Gregory Nwoye found that the Igbo of Nigeria use silence as a form of social control. True False Q10: Pitch, stress, and length of vocal sounds are called prosodic features of speech, which are important in phonological, morphological, and semantic analyses. True False Q11: Which of the following contain(s) a metaphor? (Select all that apply.) A. She fell from power. B. Everyone has to lie. C. Time is money. D. Don’t waste my time. Q12: According to Bonvillain, Keith Basso found that the Western Apache prefer silence in most situations. True False Q13: Cultural models are transmitted through language in implicit and explicit ways. True False Q14: Brent Berlin and Paul Kay’s Basic Color Terms (1969) found unique ways of categorizing colors in several languages, which led the researchers to propose only two universal colors (i.e., black and white). True False Q15: Ethnoscience reveals that different cultures and languages classify the natural world in distinct ways. True False Q16: According to Bonvillain, silence is an act of nonverbal communication that transmits different meanings dependent on cultural norms of communication. True False Q17: In language, components of sound, structure, and meaning are interrelated and expressed simultaneously, but social scientists separate them in search of their genetic bases. True False Q18: According to Leonard Bloomfield, a _____________ can be defined as “a group of people who interact by means of speech.” (1933:42). A. social class B. caste C. speech network D. speech community Q19: Which of the following contain(s) metonymic transfers? A. They’re in love. B. You’re in high spirits. C. The Devil wears Prada. D. She reads Chomsky. Q20: Semantics is the analysis of meaning, which can be ___________. (Check all that apply.) A. situational (i.e., reflect formal/informal contexts). B. affective (i.e., convey the emotion/mood of the speaker). C. cultural (i.e., reflect attitudes, values, and shared symbols). D. referential (i.e., label persons, objects, events). Q21: West Los Angeles College’s Student Conduct Code expects all students to devote adequate time to their course work. True False Yes Q22: New Day Film’s service agreement allows an individual to purchase digital streams of films at $4.99 each for 90 days, as long as the purchaser agrees that s/he alone will watch the film. True False Yes Q23: Berlin and Kay found that focal meanings of basic color terms were similar in all the languages they studied, which suggests a universal color system based on physical stimuli. True False Q24: Please match the concept to a term, which exemplifies it. Match Choice 1. I take her advice; I stand up my inner ear to her (translated from Mohawk) A. semantic domain 2. Welcome to the Wells Fargo family! B. cultural presupposition 3. Go Bruins! C. metaphors of the body 4. red, green, blue, violet, chartreuse D. metaphors of kinship Q25: A morpheme is the smallest unit of sound that serves to differentiate the meanings of words. True FalseORDERR THIS ESSAY HERE NOW AND GET A DISCOUNT !!!

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