microbiology paper on neisseria gonorrhoeae read instructions before bidding

Instructions —

This paper is for an Intro Microbiology course. There is no specific page numbers needed concepts should be explained without regard to page number.

Writer – Please use BOLDED subheadings in the paper. Subheadings are in bold.

You must have an introduction and conclusion paragraph for this paper.

APA format (in-text citations and references) American English. Title of paper – meet Neisseria gonorrhoeae

*****Please try to make parts of this paper easy to understand as possible for non microbiologists. Do not simplify by excluding details but rather explain them. For example, your book introduces flagella this way:

“The prokaryotic flagellum is an appendage of phenomenal construction and is certainly unique in the biological world. Flagella provide the power of motility or self-propulsion” (p. 93).

Your version of this introduction to flagellum could be something like this. Let’s assume your selected bacterial pathogen was Helycobacter pyloris, or H. pyloris for short, the bacterium related to stomach ulcers.

H. pyloris, and other bacteria have structures coming off their surface called flagellum; they look like thin tails. Flagella – the plural of flagellum, are amazing structures. The flagella in H. pyloris help them move around (motility) by rotating and moving like the propellers in boats or airplanes.

Writing in the tone that corresponds to the target audience is an important component of this assignment. Most references that you will find in your research are likely to be at college level or beyond. It is your job to select the few details that are relevant and leave behind those that are not. You need to understand very well the different aspects of this research project to be able to write about it in clear and simple terms.

*** Find an electron micrograph of the pathogen or an artist rendition . Add the source of the images used and the Internet address to the page that provides the link to the image, not the direct link to the image.

**Find appropriate graphs or images to illustrate two of the processes included in this report. For example, you could add a figure showing enzyme activation and catalysis work, and an illustration of the DNA and RNA molecules to show their structure and base pairs.

Label images and tables as Figures # or Table #, and refer to them as such in the body of the paper.

Include a combined reference page placing images and tables at the end of the paper, one in each page, is recommended.

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**** write into paragraph here.

Introduction to Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Present information about the discovery of Neisseria gonorrhoeae such as when, where and how was this bacterium discovered and who discovered (person or research lab). Include interesting/engaging information like the meaning of the name, and any story related to the pathogen’s discovery that is worth sharing.

Describe shape and size

Describe external structure – Fimbria on outside of the cell and what the function of fimbria is. Pili if this bacteria has it

This is a gram negative bacteria. Describe the composition of the cell wall

Describe the principle INTERNAL structures of the bacteria

How Neisseria gonorrhoeae infects its hosts

What internal or external structures are useful to this bacterium to infect its hosts? Explain at least two.

Metabolism, Growth, and Genetics

List the different types of microorganisms based on 1) their source of carbon; 2) the energy sources for different types of organisms, and 3) the type of energy metabolism in heterotrophs (e.g., oxygen respiration).

Explain with more detail the classifications of Neisseria gonorrhoeae based on the three parameters listed above.

Describe how enzymes work. Include the terms catalyst, activation energy, substrates, bonding, and products. Explain how bacteria obtain energy during fermentation and aerobic respiration. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of both fermentation and aerobic respiration to the bacterial pathogen. Use the number of ATP generated in your comparison. Indicate the type of process or processes Neisseria gonorrhoeae use to get energy.

Briefly describe bacterial growth and binary fission. Define exponential growth and indicate the conditions necessary for exponential growth. List some of the environmental factors that affect microbial growth.

Find possible environmental factors that Neisseria gonorrhoeae may encounter and describe them.

Briefly describe the structure of DNA and RNA. Explain the role of DNA and RNA in the formation of proteins; use the terms replication, transcription and translation in your explanation.

Find information on the DNA sequencing of the chromosome of your selected bacterium to complete the table below, and compare your bacterial chromosome to the human chromosome one, the largest of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in the human genome. Define or describe the characteristics shown in the first column. (indicate the source for the data used to complete the table)

Characteristics

Selected Bacterial Pathogen Chromosome

Human Chromosome One

Size, mm. (bp x 0.34 x 0.000001)

85

Base Pairs

248,956,422

Encoding segments or genes

2,058

Non-encoding segments or pseudogenes

1220

Structural RNAs

200

From Wikipedia, Human Genome. Last updated 04/20/2018

bp = base pairs

Genetic mutation and antibiotic resistance

What is the role of genetic mutations on the development of antibiotic resistance by some bacterial species? Explain. Is Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistant to some antibiotics?

Microbial Human Interactions

Briefly describe the role of the resident microbiota of the human body. Give at least two areas of the body colonized by different type of microorganisms. Include the name of the microorganisms. Determine whether your selected bacterial pathogen is part of the normal microbiota, and the parts of the body where these bacteria reside

For your selected pathogen, briefly describe the pathogen’s invasion process including the portals of entry, attachment, and way of establishment, virulence factors, and portal of exit. If some of this information is not available, use information from a similar bacteria; include the name of the similar bacteria.

Describe the stages of clinical infection, patterns of infection, and signs and symptoms of infection related to your selected pathogen or to a similar pathogen. Explain the difference between infection and disease.

Describe the disease(s) caused by your selected pathogen, including the parts of the body affected, symptoms and modes of detection (e.g., tests). Present any other information about the disease found relevant or unique/rare.

Physical and chemical agents for microbial control

List the major types of physical methods of microbial control. Describe the mode of action of at least two physical methods of control. Identify one physical method used to control your selected pathogen or similar bacteria and describe the mode of action.

List the major categories of chemical methods of microbial control. Identify at least two categories chemical agents of control that may be used to control your selected pathogen or similar bacteria; indicate the correct use, effectiveness, and possible toxicity of the agent to humans.

Chemotherapy – Drug action and selection

Discuss the main characteristics of the ideal antimicrobial drug. Discuss the major modes of action of antimicrobial agents in controlling microbial growth and give examples of antimicrobials for each mode of action. Identify one antibacterial drug used to treat the disease caused by your selected pathogen. Describe the mechanism of action of such antibacterial drug and the spectrum of effectiveness.

Explain how the appropriate antimicrobials are chosen for specific diseases including the Kirby-Bauer and MIC tests. Identify a test, if any, used to identify the antimicrobial drugs used for your selected pathogen.

***** Conclusion paragraph