Performance Monitoring Enabling Flexible Networking
Performance Monitoring Enabling Flexible Networking
The Optical Performance Monitoring is about handling the management of high capacity and dense wavelength division multiplexing with the optical transmission and use of switching systems. It is mainly involving the use of assessment of quality of data channels through measuring the optical characteristics without looking at any transmitted sequence of bits. The potential mechanism is about improving the controlling of transmission and then handling the physical layer fault management through the optical transmission system. The fiber optic communications are based on handling the tremendous growth with handling the increased and relentless demands for the higher capacity (Dong et al., 2016). Here, the demands are spurred with internet traffic growth which is important for the number of users and the bandwidth consumers by users. The examples are related to the optical modulation format with focusing on the optical add-drop multiplexers, with flexible grid work.
In optical commination, there are different types of roles which are important for the optical performance. It includes the monitoring including the ensuring of correct switching with reconfiguration based on the optical add-drop multiplexers and systematic level for the dynamic equalization. With this, the major purpose of the same is to handle the DWDM networks (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing) which is important for the Optical performance monitor and then measuring the channel power, wavelength and the other optical signal to noise ratio for the different channels (Christodoulopoulos et al., 2015). The optical performance is based on monitoring techniques through communication system which evolves the electronic to optical forms. Here, the electronic performance and the monitoring helps in checking the health of electronic system with checking on the quality parameters as well. The optical performance is set through handling the monitoring check with focus on signal amplitude on individual channels with bit error rate and signal to noise ratios. There is a need to monitor the different functions with upgradation of the services for diagnosing the malfunctioning of assessment of the performances (Corcoran et al., 2015). The market realities are about handling eh exhaustive monitoring processes which includes properly monitoring the current network practices.
The optical performance monitoring is about checking on functional remains in optoelectronic regenerators that are spaced between every 500 km in terrestrial fiber networks. The optics are important for properly monitoring the performance with the spans that are including amplifiers and the optical switches or the adds and drops. The monitoring is done through taking the standardized optical test and the measurement equipment to sites. The provision of new services and the monitoring of signals help in adjustment of optical amplifiers and components as they are able to add the signals on the newer wavelength as well. The terminals are set with verifying the presence of signals with checking on the quality as needed. The approach set for this is labor intensive with the carriers that are able to find it cost effective with test equipment working on the larger capital investments for certain units (Tan et al, 2014).
The optical monitoring equipment’s are for the embedded monitoring which is based on handling the functions of wavelength that are held in the operating windows. There are spectrum which are set on the linear sensor array and the element measures the power with the smaller range of the wavelength as well. Here, the calibration of the power is through the intensity standards with single detector working on scanning the spectrum. There is a need to monitor the quality of signals with individual channels which are subject to the debate about isolation for the individual signals (Oda et al., 2015). They are determined through monitoring the bit error rate with requiring working on the forward error correction in optical systems that directly affects on how the performance is degraded. The electronic systems work without the forwarding of error correction and is set with the slow increase in the bit error rates with advancing the failure warnings as well. The Forward Error Correction in Optical systems directly effect on the degradation of performance where the electronic systems work on handling the slower increase of the bit error rates and giving the advancement to the warning of failure. Here, it includes the optical systems with working on keeping a proper output signal with error-free raw error rate that tends to increase (Dong et al., 2015). The polarization mode dispersion is a different matter which varies based on the environmental conditions and works on handling the PMD monitoring with more concerns as well.
The planning of the optical performance completely depend on the networking management and then working on the procedures set for maintenance. It includes the proper equipment where the companies are facing certain tradeoff problems with different choices. The carriers are considered to be including the extensive monitoring requirements which leads to reduction and designing systems with proper monitoring. The OPM monitoring is about the maintenance and control with proper high-speed management and reconfiguration of the optical networks. Here, the impairments are defined through time variation process with rapid configuration of the network paths (Meng et al., 2017). The properties are defined for the real time information with enabling stabilized operations and working towards corresponding for the accumulation of impairment with specifications for the degrading effect which is deployed around the network. The network features are based on monitoring the convergence with the different data types. They are important for building the separate optical network that is based on handling the different sets of optimal requirements. Here, the routing is based on the shorter path calculation to satisfy the network QoS constraints with data rate, delay and jitter. The performance techniques are based on improving the control of the transmission process with handling the fault management of the physical layers. They are important for handling the transactions of operations with switching systems (Frankel et al., 2018). The example of the functions needs to focus on handling the amplifier controls and channel identification with signal quality assessment. The channel management layer monitoring involves the proper determination for transport and management done with the real time measurements for the channel presence and power levels.
OPM has been effectively used for the different methods to handle the traffic. Hence, the routing decisions are based on the performance and monitoring of the system. The focus is on handling the unlimited budget and then valuing the monitoring which increases with transparency. The realization of new methods is to manage the traffic with routing decisions that are based on the performance monitoring. The quality is determined with linking the security and updating the routing look-up tables (Frankel et al., 2018). It ensures the physical layer monitoring that depends on the network designing with different monitors. The techniques are based on handling the process of digital information encoded in the optical framework with measurements focusing on the encoding with optical carrier. The noise and distortion on the amplitude power spectrum that leads to the translation to impairing on signal. The Fiber Attenuation and Optical Power Loss s also connected to it where the input power is set to the output fiber which is caused by absorption, scattering and then bending loses. The imposition is based on the fiber attenuation that is set for the scattering off the silicon atoms at a shorter wavelength. The optical power is set for the impairment of monitoring that depends on the optical power measurement.
Christodoulopoulos, K., Kokkinos, P., Di Giglio, A., Pagano, A., Argyris, N., Spatharakis, C., Dris, S., Avramopoulos, H., Antona, J.C., Delezoide, C. and Jennevé, P., 2015, July. ORCHESTRA-Optical performance monitoring enabling flexible networking. In Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2015 17th International Conference on (pp. 1-4). IEEE.
Corcoran, B., Monat, C., Pelusi, M., Grillet, C., White, T.P., Faolain, L.O., Krauss, T.F., Eggleton, B.J. and Moss, D.J., 2015. Optical performance monitoring at 640Gb/s via slow-light in a silicon nanowire. arXiv preprint arXiv:1505.03224.
Dong, Z., Khan, F.N., Sui, Q., Zhong, K., Lu, C. and Lau, A.P.T., 2016. Optical performance monitoring: A review of current and future technologies. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 34(2), pp.525-543.
Dong, Z., Sui, Q., Lau, A.P.T., Zhong, K., Li, L., Li, Z. and Lu, C., 2015, March. Optical performance monitoring in DSP-based coherent optical systems. In Optical Fiber Communication Conference (pp. W4D-1). Optical Society of America.
Frankel, M.Y., Blair, L.T., Bourget, C., Ong, L.Y., Boertjes, D.W. and Gaudette, J., Ciena Corp, 2018. Path computation based on dynamic performance monitoring systems and methods in optical networks. U.S. Patent Application 15/907,661.
Meng, F., Ou, Y., Yan, S., Sideris, K., Pascual, M.D.G., Nejabati, R. and Simeonidou, D., 2017, March. Field trial of a novel SDN enabled network restoration utilizing in-depth optical performance monitoring assisted network re-planning. In Optical Fiber Communication Conference (pp. Th1J-8). Optical Society of America.
Oda, S., Yang, J.Y., Akasaka, Y., Vassilieva, O., Yamauchi, T., Aoki, Y., Sekiya, M. and Rasmussen, J.C., 2015, February. Optical performance monitoring for dynamic and flexible photonic networks. In Optical Metro Networks and Short-Haul Systems VII (Vol. 9388, p. 93880E). International Society for Optics and Photonics.
Tan, M.C., Khan, F.N., Al-Arashi, W.H., Zhou, Y. and Lau, A.P.T., 2014. Simultaneous optical performance monitoring and modulation format/bit-rate identification using principal component analysis. Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, 6(5), pp.441-448.
Performance Monitoring Enabling Flexible Networking