Quiet Revolution Of Numerical Weather Prediction

Quiet Revolution Of Numerical Weather Prediction

Quiet Revolution Of Numerical Weather Prediction

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Discuss about the Quiet Revolution Of Numerical Weather Prediction.

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Introduction

Satellite Communication Systems

There is always diverse information that has to be collected on the earth’s surface from different distant places that have to make the various activities being handled in the earth’s surface to be a success. The stations are situated in different positions on the earth’s surface, and the satellites are always of much importance in passing communication between the diverse stations. The transmit-responder having its location on an artificial satellite plays a significant role in facilitating the radio communication in the microwave frequency range. The result will be the communication between the two distant points will be made a success. Such form of communication is referred to as satellite communication. The satellite communication system has been adopted in various areas, communication being one of the essential areas that have adopted the use of satellites (Agrawal and Zeng, 2015). Telephony calls for the transmission of voice from one station to another (Jinchun and Liang, 2016). Apart from that, it allows for interactive communication between two distant places. The satellite communication system plays a significant role in ensuring that such a form of communication is made a success. Apart from that, media stations do collect data all over the nation and combine to form news that has to spread to the rest of the population. Citizens waiting to listen to the report are situated in distant places all over the nation. Television technology makes use of the satellite communication system to allow for communication to be done uniformly to all the places (Bogart, 2017).

The earth has various objects that one cannot attain their view and information by making use of the physical eyes. There is always the need of making use of better technology to get to view such object and attain more information regarding, hence, the need for remote sensing. The technology allows for one to view and attain information of a flying object or object far below the earth. The satellite communication system is embraced to allow for efficient working. Apart from that, the analysis of weather greatly helps in the better planning of the nation regarding the different activities that are to be handled. One of the typical activities that call for a study of weather is farming and road constructions (Urry, 2015). A nation has to predict the future climate before giving precise information to the citizens on the activities that they are to handle. The satellite communication system greatly helps in predicting the weather and providing accurate information to the society (Bauer, Thorpe, and Brunet, 2015). The militants do also need to apply high levels of accuracy while targeting specific points on earth. Apart from that, they have to gauge the positioning of the enemy as a way of ensuring that they are correctly positioned to deal with them effectively. The satellite communication system is of much significance when it comes to determining such location with the military forces.

The satellite communication systems are associated with transmission of messages for long distances. The transfer is faced with minimal terrestrial repeaters hence, implying the high levels of efficiency related to the system (Cameron, Kudsia, and Mansour, 2015). Also, the signals are always of high capacity contributing to the quality of information that one making use of the system will be in a position to attain at the end of the day. The system does also have the capability to carry out multiple applications at a go making it most preferred by most institutions. For example, it can relay radio information, television and more so offer internet services. The rate at which a task is handled by a certain device will tell the advantageous the device is to the society. The satellite communications system facilitates rapid deployment of information given to it to provide the necessary results. The result will be the militant officers making use of the device will be in a position attain their fundamental goals more efficiently. Despite the advantageous features associated with the satellite, the system does experience delays through its working. Recent research has associated the system with ½-second delays (Rucker, 2017). The delay mainly serves as the primary cause of echo and objectionable delay, especially with data transmission. The case is typical in the case where the areas where there is the acknowledgment of the data packets. Errors are a standard issue in the society. The satellites are too prone to mistakes in their working (Haines, 2016). However, rectifying the mistakes has always been a significant challenge especially after the launching of the system. The result is always that some inefficiency will be experienced for some period as a possible solution is being sourced around. The cost of launching a communication satellite system is also too high. Hence, might be a limitation to some groups around the globe.

Methodology

Reports call for gathering information. Information is never found with one location. One has always to find the different methods that will help in gathering information from the diverse locations. Therefore, while doing research, one does have the option of making use of the primary or the secondary methods of doing research (Baller, Dutta, and Lanvin, 2016). Choosing the appropriate method that works better for the study plays a significant role in facilitating successful task in doing the research. In determining the various properties and the functioning of the satellite communication systems, there was a need to make use of the secondary data. The method was cheaper compared to the primary means of collecting data. In addition to that, there was a significant reduction in the complication that is associated with primary methods of collecting data.

Use Of Official Statistics

Use of official statistics from different institutions and governments greatly helped in carrying out the collection of data (Reimsbach-Kounatze, 2015). The figures on the efficiency of the satellite communication systems were provided. In addition to that, there was the providence of the costs associated with the installation and maintenance of the satellite communication system. The scientific level of the information was high making the information collected so efficient. The high levels of standardization associated with the data contributed to making the data more scientific, for example, the data being presented through such statistics were to be registered by the law (Wilkinson et al, 2016). The availability of the information contributes to making the collection of data regarding specific issues experience ease or high levels of difficulty. Official statistics were readily available making the information readily available. Apart from that, information was provided without any form of restriction. The result was that proper analysis could be done at the end of the day.

Time was an essential factor to consider through the collection of information. Different aspects of the satellite communication system had to be collected. Hence, taking the least time possible contributed to making the research succeed at the end of the day. Official statistics cut down on time needed in carrying out the research (Silverman, 2015). Finances were too a critical aspect to consider while carrying out the research. Completion of the study called for having sufficient funds. Therefore, one has to ensure that proper budgeting is done and the spending of the finances be so minimal. Use of the official statistics played a significant role in ensuring that the least amount of money had to be spent to make the collection of data. The result is that a wide variety of information was collected. Despite being associated with lots of advantages, the data did also have some associated disadvantages. Most of the information did not fully achieve the objectives of doing research. One had to make use of several data that could help come up with accurate information. The structure of the data also experienced some levels of inefficiency. Some report did not explain vividly on the various functions but instead based their research on the history and the individuals involved in the collection of the data (Campbell and Stanley, 2015).

Use Of Books

Different books have been published that exceedingly offered help in the collection of data (Taylor, Bogdan, and DeVault, 2015). The authors are always out to seek more information regarding such technology in the society and present them in the society to ensure that they are informed. In the process, there will be the production of different books that greatly help in carrying out such forms of research in the society. Varying advantages characterized the books. The information regarding the system was widely spread. One could quickly attain information from different aspects of the system by making use of one single book. The result was that the tiresome nature associated with carrying out the research was highly reduced. For example, one could quickly identify the advantages and disadvantages regarding the satellite system in one book and ensure to prepare an extensive report at the end of the day. The accuracy of the information was also assured through the research, which helped in building the confidence even as the report was presented in the society. Information in books has to be proofread by publishers who establish whether the information is correct and can be accepted in the society. Therefore, the reading through the books was not associated with lots of doubts. The result was that the time taken in carrying out the research was significantly reduced (Lewis, 2015).

Components Of The Satellite Communication System

The Space Segment

The satellites and the ground facilities form the major component of the space segment (Harde, Shahade, and Badnore, 2015). The parts play a significant role in ensuring that the tracking being done by the system is efficient in its operation. Apart from that, the system also performs the telemetry and the telecommand functions. The components of the space segments make such functions be a reality. This is in addition to the support of the logistics, a feature that is needed for better operation of the segment. The space segment has various subsystems that are put in detail below.

Satellite Orbits

Philosophers have been out in determining the position and the paths of the satellite in space. The activity did occupy most of their, however, despite the efforts, the results were too not realized. The results were finally found through Kepler in the 17th century. He was in a position to determine the properties associated with planetary motion, a task that he achieved by keenly observing the sun and the planets. According to Kepler’s law, the planets move round the sun by making use of the eclipse. The sun is always at the focus, and the motion occurs in a plane. There is always a line from the sun to the planet referred to as the radius vector. The track is responsible for the sweeping out of equal areas in equal intervals of time. In addition to that, the law also stated that the all the planets have a similar ratio of the square of the period to the cube of the semi-major axis (Rosengren et al, 2015).

Keplerian Orbits

It mainly includes the Keplerian assumptions that primarily underlie the approximation of the forces that satellites moving around a central body do experience through their operation (Özel and Freire, 2016). For example, telling the forces that an artificial satellite is moving around the earth will experience in addition to the forces that a planet might experience as it moves around the earth. Attaining such information boosts the ability to explain the fundamental laws associated with the satellite orbits adequately. The mutual interaction occurring between any two bodies will also be determined at the end of the day. The examples of attractions that will have to be determined include the attraction between the earth and the satellite. In addition to that, there will be the ease determination of the attraction between the sun and the moon.

The Earth Segment

It mainly constitutes of the earth stations. They include the transmitting and the receiving earth station (Davies et al, 2015). Before a communication becomes a success, there will be a need for signals to be transmitted to the satellite that can later be interpreted and provide the necessary information. The transmitting earth station plays a significant role in ensuring proper transmitting of such signals. The report produced at the end of the day has to be received by particular devices, from which the responsible person will be in a position to attain the information. The receiving earth station contains such devices that receive the signals and properly interpret them so that the human beings can use them. The technology has been improved in the present day. In some of the occasions, the same earth station performs the roles of transmitting and receiving the signals at the end of the day (Mozaffari et al, 2015). The satellites mainly engage in the production of baseband signals. These are the signals that the earth stations can appropriately receive and they come in differing forms. Some of them will come in either the voice signals while others in video signals being in the digital or the analog form. In the previous days, there was the use of the analog modulation technique being referred to as the FM modulation and greatly helped in the transmission of both the voice and the video signals. Such signals were too in analog form. However, the digital modulation techniques were adopted after that, the methods included the Phase Shift Keying and the Frequency Shift Keying (Okunev and Innurvation, 2015). The use of such signals was motivated by the fact that the signs were to be presented in digital form. Therefore, there was a need for conversion of the analog signals back to being digital signals. Hence, efficiency was achieved at the end of the day. The earth stations vary significantly regarding the transmitter, frequency band utilization, antenna characteristics, and the receiver. The carrying traits interfere considerably with the location of the earth station. Some stations are in the seas while others are on aircraft or the ships in the sea. Quiet Revolution Of Numerical Weather Prediction

The Frequency Band

Satellite communications make use of the radio frequencies that allow the proper operation. The different radio frequencies are commonly referred to as the frequency bands (Thompson, Moran, and Swenson, 2017). Some of the common radiation frequencies are the C, Ku, X, EGH and the V-band. Different sites make use of similar frequencies, however, despite that; interface has to always be avoided. Therefore, the government takes up the role of ensuring that the organization is achieved. Hence, there are legislations made that ensure to exercise control of such frequencies. Each organization in the society has to work and abide by such laws by providing that the operation of such companies does not display any form of superseding the set laws by the government. The spectrums of the frequencies are primarily used to ensure fair distribution of the frequencies depending on the amount they can pay. Apart from that, the monitoring of the several sites making use of the frequencies is done through the spectrums. Therefore, federal communications commission is always responsible for carrying out the frequency auction. The process involves the selling of the frequency spectrums to the different companies hence; each of them will purchase the spectrums in accordance with their needs. At the end of the day, they will be responsible for their spectrum. Despite making use of similar frequency, interface will have been eliminated. Despite having the set order, individuals still go to the extent of making use of some frequencies without being authorized by the responsible authorities. Such practices are treated as crime and they are punishable by a jail time or fine. The earth stations make use of frequencies having zero regulation being done on them (Hofmann, 2017). However, they are needed to carry out the manipulation and transportation of data without causing any form of interference with other radio communications. The frequencies of the earth stations are however, similar to the frequencies of the local television and radio broadcasts. They might lead to an interference of both parties. Hence, intensive shielding is always applied on the radio shacks and the other devices to prevent such forms of interferences (Michael, 2016). Quiet Revolution Of Numerical Weather Prediction

Characteristics Of A Satellite Communication System

Coverage

The designing of the satellite is always to ensure radiation in a much smaller effective beam width. The main purpose of such designing is always to increase the satellite e.i.r.p in the service area. The service does not put into close consideration the shape of the area, whatever the shape the service will always be increased. The designing of the narrow beams is always to ensure maximum energy is concentrated in such areas and the level outside is reduced to the possible lowest degree. Orbit utilization has always to be achieved through the whole process, enhancing the utilization will call for the design of the antenna to achieve particular objectives. One primary goal is to that the main beam pattern should do the modeling of the service areas and it should be done as close as possible. Therefore, there will need to avoid the beam being simple circular or elliptical but assuming a complex shape that can either be a complex shape or special being referred to as a shaped beam. In addition to that, the minimization of the outside radiation should be appropriately done as a way of ensuring reduction of interference that may occur allowing for proper coordination of the networks. Quiet Revolution Of Numerical Weather Prediction

Access

The satellites can either be located at a particular place on earth or not be located in such areas. Hence, a show that a satellite has the capability of having carrier service stations located at different positions on earth (Wrappe and Qualcomm, 2015). The service stations mainly engage in the carrying of the carrier signals associated with the particular satellites. Citing the occurrence of such situations, multiple access function has been enabled in the satellites. They primarily help in ensuring efficient taking and giving of signals from different stations ensuring to avoid any form of interference from occurring. The result was the coming up with three different types of multiple access techniques. They include the Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and finally the Code Division Multiple Access. The FDMA type of multiple access involves the assigning of each signal with a differing type of frequency band range. On the other hand, the TDMA has its basis on the time access. Each channel is served with a specified period. The channel will be in a position to access the entire spectrum bandwidth within the chosen time. The CDMA works differently such that a there is the assigning of a unique code to each channel, that allows for distinguishing purposes (Il?ev, 2016). Quiet Revolution Of Numerical Weather Prediction

Distribution

Communication does cover large physical areas. Hence, there is a need for coming up with a technology that can be distributed over large physical areas and also be affordable by the more significant bit of the society. The satellite technology has played a significant role in solving the problem associated with communication over large physical areas in the society despite not being the very efficient method (Zeng, Zhang, and Lim, 2016). The satellite technology is characterized by particular utilities that play a significant role in offering help when dealing with specific network applications in the society. Some of the typical application that was well covered includes the distribution automation and the automatic meter reading. The marketing of the satellite technology should therefore, not be done to compete with the application that is covered in them. They should rather be used in the hard-to-read areas. The areas are faced with conditions making the alternative communication technologies not easily applied. The use of the satellite technology can overcome such challenges hence, offering a solution to effective communication. The technology achieves the purpose of being well distributed too citing the cost that is associated with it in distributing the communication over large areas. The technology is cheaper compared to other communication technologies hence; the cost can be afforded for large physical areas (Moreno et al, 2015).

Frequency Optimization

The satellite communication system is made up of several satellites and multiple user terminals. The satellite serves as the primary relay point between the user of the technology and the gateway. The result is that it ensures the providence of the bi-directional communication skills between the two parties involved in carrying out the communication. The user terminals have their location on the ground. They are generally referred to as the earth stations. There is the need for serving multiple users without causing any form of frequency interference. Frequency optimization is always achieved by ensuring the system harbors the antennas or the antenna arrays (Schaible et al, 2015). The arrays work to provide the satellite beams, each beam having a particular user. The beams having the SDMA feature can always be directed to a specific position within the chosen service areas, hence, achieving the frequency optimization. There will too be the need to obtain frequency re-use to produce the type of optimization. Making use of the frequency at the same time can lead to co-channel interference especially if the users have a close geographical location.

Propagation Delay

The orbital altitudes have varying propagation delays associated with them. The Low-Earth Orbit hosts different commercial and military satellites operating within them and is known for having propagation delays. There is, however, a significant variation in the delay experienced within the orbits. The trait of the satellites changing its position occasionally serves as the primary cause for such a difference of the delays being experienced. The frequent delays range between 4.3, 4.5, and 7.8 milliseconds per every hop respective for the bent-pipe application especially is the satellite is directly overhead. Appropriate calculation of the propagation delay will call for the doubling of such figures. There is need to note that such delays are caused by the different devices connected to the system. Each device is responsible for some degree of delay being experienced citing their components and configurations. The configuration and designing seen with such devices are always to ensure that they are in a position to serve a vast network of applications (Ippolito and Ippolito, 2017). Quiet Revolution Of Numerical Weather Prediction

Conclusion

Satellite communication system has been achieved in the entire society. Communication among persons is the primary sector in the society that has adopted the use of satellite technology to accomplish its purpose. The working of the telephony, television, and remote sensing functions are achieved by making use of the communication satellite system. The system is associated with the fast deployment of information making it efficient in the diverse applications. The system is also associated with some limitations. For example, the cost of launching a satellite is too expensive. The process of collecting data called for having lots of finances. Hence, there was a need for making use of less expensive and reliable sources. They included the use of official statistics and books. In performing its functions, the satellite communication system has several components. They include the space segment, the earth segment, and the frequency band. The system has diverse characteristics including the coverage, access, distributing factor of it, the optimization of the frequency and finally the propagation delay. Quiet Revolution Of Numerical Weather Prediction

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Quiet Revolution Of Numerical Weather Prediction