1) Biographical details: especially as it relates to personal religious/non-religious beliefs
and how those beliefs shaped their approach to the topic of religion; also upbringing,
academic situation (i.e., livelihood, any career difficulties).
2) 19th century European context: their views of modernity (industrialization, imperial
expansion, colonization, urbanization, technological progress, etc.) and religionâ€™s place
3) Charles Darwin and the impact of his theory of evolution (Origin of the Species, 1859).
4) The Phenomenologists lament in other words, to what extent did these intellectual
thinkers manage to bracket their own moral judgment, presuppositions regarding religion (especially Christianity), ingrained assumptions regarding racial, gender, or cultural difference.