Thermodynamic Variables Fluid Solid Surfaces

Thermodynamic Variables Fluid Solid Surfaces

Thermodynamic Variables Fluid Solid Surfaces

How To Do The Analysis Of Thermodynamic Variables On Fluid And Solid Surfaces?



In thermodynamics, thermal equilibrium is an important factor which exists in fluid. Changes on different variables highly affect the equilibrium state of the fluid. Once one factor changes, other variables have to change in order to bring the fluid into equilibrium. The fluid exerts pressure has great impact on the solid surfaces where the fluid is contained. The materials making the solid surfaces are an important consideration when looking at the changes on the fluid factors and the way they vary (Berezovski & Va?n, 2017). During the thermodynamics flow, variations do happen on fluid particles. The thermodynamic flow has directly relation with the thermodynamics flow. To understand the thermodynamics flow, it is important to understand the particles variation. Different factors are able to affect the particles in thermodynamics. Temperature is of such factors which play a critical role in thermodynamic changes. Kinetic energy which the particles are able to experience is directly related to the temperature of the particles. Accounting, the particles physical properties play crucial roles in variation of thermal flow (Moran and Howard, 2008). The physical properties are able to lead to changes in particle chemical reactions. These changes in particles play important changes in the thermodynamic flow when the particles change. Moreover, the temperature of the particles also affects the internal energy of the particles. This leads to changes to the movement of the particles and therefore affecting the thermodynamic flow. The internal energy plays critical role in movement of the particles. Thermodynamic Variables Fluid Solid Surfaces

Increasing the energy leads to changes in other factors such as the contact angle, wettability and also adhesion of the particles. Kinetic theory helps to relate the temperature to the wettability and contact angle of the particles to the system (Mittal, 2008). Temperature also changes the collision and movement speed of the particles in thermodynamic flow. In addition, another variable which play an important role in thermodynamic changes is the pressure of the system. Like temperature, pressure has direct influence of fluid particles and this lead to variation in fluid parameters and behavior. Pressure has also direct impact on the contact angle and wettability of the particles to the surface.

In addition, pressure and temperature play critical roles when it comes to carbon capture and oil storage. The particles movements in these two areas are an analysed in this paper. The way the particles movements changes the thermodynamic flow in oil storage as well as carbon capture. Increased and decrease of carbon capture depend on the behaviour of the particles which is related to particles temperature and system pressure. Moreover, oil storage is more about containing the oil particles and this is related to their movement in the thermodynamic system (Gemmer, Michel & Mahler, 2009). Particles pressure is an important factor which is analysed in the oil storage. The densities of the particles are another factor which determines the particle movement, which affects the contact angle and wettability of the particles to the system (Mittal, 2008). In oil storage, fractional distillation is related to the particle temperature. The capture and storage of these particles depend on the Accounting of temperature they have to escape.


The main purpose of this study is to analyse the different variable which affect the thermodynamic flow. More specifically, the paper will look at how the variables are able to affect the contact angle and wettability factors of the thermodynamic particles. In addition, the paper will analyse the way the temperature and pressure of the particles are able to affect the carbon capture and oil storage. These are some of the thermodynamic situations which will help in understanding the way the variable factors influence thermodynamic systems. The major problem being analysed in this paper is the way the variables influence thermodynamic flow as well as thermodynamic fluids.

Objectives Of The Study

To determine how thermodynamic fluid particles change with changes of key thermodynamic factors.

Specific objectives

1. Analyse effects of pressure and temperature on fluid particles

2. Investigate how temperature and pressure affect wettability and contact angle in thermodynamic fluid

3. Analyse effects of pressure and temperature on carbon capture and oil storage.

  • Method
  • Models for wettability factors will be development to analyze wettability factors
  • Use of Buckley and Leverett approach in analyzing the wettability factors.
  • Use of capillary action to determine the fractional wettability

Literature Review

The thermodynamic state of any system is defined as the condition of the state due to the impact of the fluid at any given moment. Fluid flows through a solid surface and thus creating different factors which determine its flow (Lebon, Jou,&  Casas-Vázquez, 2008). Thermodynamic equilibrium is one of the key states that the variables always try to achieve in order to attain proper flow of the fluid. The variables functionality and behavior is highly depended on the equilibrium state of the system as well as the strength of the surfaces involved. Change on one variable in the system triggers changes on other parts of the systems and therefore the system will change them to find equilibrium (Ben-Naim, 2008). A thermodynamic systems involved use of energy created by the system. The variables will work within the given energy and try to maintain the functionality and flow of the system. Some of the common thermodynamic variables include temperature, volume and pressure. All these variables are involved in the system and their interaction with the solid surface determine the flow.

At many times, these factors are interdependent and changing one factor triggers a change on the other factors (Bejan, 2016). The solid surfaces are highly impacted by these changes and it has to be strong to withstand the energy which the fluid exerts on them. In addition, the thermodynamic variables are classified according to different categories which may include the thermal parameters, mechanical parameters add material parameters. The thermal parameters include the temperature and entropy. These factors relate to the changes in environmental temperature present in the system (Cengel, & Boles, 2002). The mechanical parameters on the other hand include the pressure, volume or simply stress and volume strain. The materials variables include the chemical potential of the fluid and the number of particles involved. In any system, all these variables will be present and changes on some will trigger changes on some variable while keeping other constant. Therefore the change on thermodynamic system will depend on the type of variable changed.

First, in a thermodynamic flow, the number of particles involved is critical since the different variables depend on the status of the particles (Belkin, et. al., 2015). To understand the different variables, it is important to understand how the number of particles to relate to them in a thermodynamic flow. In any systems, there are specific numbers of particles which are in continuous flow (Moran and Howard, 2008). Changing the number of particle is able to affect the different variables which are involved. These particles are in motion and usually collide with each other. Therefore any state of the change of the particle will create either low or lower collision in the system. This will definitely affect the solid surface through which the flow is taking place (Donald, 2008). The particles although not largely viewed as a variable are contained on an enclosed system. Changing the different variables means that the particles state is affected and triggers the change on other. The particles are the main subject in the thermodynamic flow. Any variable change is imposed on the particle and their interaction dictates whether the other variables will change. Imposing the change on the particle therefore is able to show the impact on the key variables and the effect which the solid surface will experience.

One of the important variable in thermodynamic is the temperature. This factor is defined as the hotness or coldness of a system. Temperature is a key factor which is able to define the kinetic energy which the different particles are able to possess (McNaught et al., 2016). In many cases, the temperature is defined to be the parameter which dictates the jumping up and down of the particles of the fluid involved. The temperature is able to give the particles the required energy to move within the thermodynamic system which they are enclosed in. any changes in temperature have direct change on other variables such as the pressure (Tschoegl, 2000). The temperature creates the activity energy for the particles within the system. The movement of the particles within the thermodynamic systems can be defined according to the temperatures of the system. For instance, low temperature makes the particles inactive and therefore making them to move at a slower speed. This reduced the contact angles and wettability on the solid surface where the particles are enclosed (Roshan, Al-Yaseri, Sarmadivaleh & Iglauer, 2016). The energy with the particles depends on the system temperature directly. This is the environment at which the particles are able to operate at. At constant volume and pressure, changing the temperature will affect the pressure and volume of the environment.

Moreover, the physical properties of the particles are able to determine the movement of the particles to influence the contact angle and wettability. Different factors of the particles such as the density, vapor pressure, electrical conductivity are able to determine the level at which the particles are able to determine the temperature absorption. In addition, other key physical properties which affect the reaction of the temperature include the chemical reaction extend. Thermal radiation and sound speed are other key factors which have proven to be critical in affecting the thermodynamic status of particles temperature (Dalarsson, Dalarsson & Golubovic?, 2011). In thermodynamics, the temperature variable is simply the definition of the physical hotness or coldness of the particles of the fluid. In thermodynamics, temperature is considered to be an intensive variable. This is because the differential coefficient of the variable is defined with respect to another factor of the thermodynamic system. Temperature is transferred through the available medium and thus it means that it will reach the particles through such medium. This makes the temperature an intensive variable in thermodynamic situation. The particles contact with the medium for long time makes the temperature to be transferred to the particles and thus affecting their temperature status (McCollam, 2007). Zeroth law is used to explain the temperature transfer within the different points. The temperature is able to affect other variables both intensive and extensive variables. First, the temperature is able to define the entropy of the system. The entropy is the energy of the system. The particles are at constant energy and when temperature is changed, it creates the change of the energy.

For the internal energy, the temperature is defined as a key partial derivative. The wettability of the system is highly affected by the temperature through the entropy of the system (Kurzyn?ski, 2006). The temperature is able to increase the energy of the particles. Increasing the temperature means that the particles move at high speed and thus making more collisions to the surface. Increased collision results to increase wettability of the solid surface (International Symposium on Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion, & Mittal, 2008). Therefore temperature can be defined to be directly related to the wettability in a thermodynamic system. The temperature makes the particles to gain more energy and making them to making high contact with the surface more frequently. This movement helps to increase the particles contact with the external solid surface where the particles are flowing through. These collisions are critical in defining the wettabilitty status of the particle to the system. This is an important variable which affect the particles movement within the surface. The wettability is defined by the amount of internal energy which is composed on the particles (International Symposium on Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion, & Mittal, 2002). This energy plays a critical role on the particle movement and thus defining the wettability status of the thermodynamic system. Therefore, the temperature will play a critical role in increasing the energy of the particles and thus increasing wettability status of the system. For any defined surface, the temperature is found to affect the system as follows;


According to the kinetic theory, temperature is based on macroscopic system, which is composed of microscopic particles. The temperature definition is defined as the hotness of two bodies with respect to the thermodynamic equilibria (Hillert, 2008). The contact angle for the particle is largely defined by the energy which the particles have. Since the temperature is able to increase the energy and contact, the temperature will have direct impact on the contact angle of the particles. The speed of the particles increases the collision status and thus defining the contact angle of the particles. Generally, particle increase on the system is able to increase the contact angle of the particle with the system (Berezovski & Va?n, 2017). The contact angle is therefore to increase with the increase in temperature for the particles. Increased temperature is able to increase the speed at which the particles move. This increases the angle at which the particles will be able to bounce back when striking the surface. Thermodynamic Variables Fluid Solid Surfaces

In addition, the temperature is able to affect other thermodynamic variables. Increasing temperature as seen increases the speed of the particle movement and thus increases the particle collisions (Danov, 2001). The collision increase is experienced between the particles and the solid surface where the fluid moves. This collision is able to define the pressure which the system has at any given moment. Therefore increasing the temperature increases the collisions and thus increasing the system pressure. Nevertheless, the temperature will have different effect o the volume of the system. The volume will highly depend on the material for the solid surface upon which the thermodynamic fluid is contained (Hillert, 2008). The pressure increase will define whether the material will expand to accommodate the pressure. Therefore pressure will have little impact on the volume of the system. Weaker solid surfaces will increase in volume when the temperature is increase since the particles move at higher speed, forcing the material to expand.

Another key thermodynamic variable which is critical for any system is the pressure. For any particular space, the pressure is defined the force which is applied to the surface per unit area. This is the force which the particles of the surface are able to apply to the system when they come into contact with the solid surface (Berezovski & Va?n, 2017). Pressure is distributed across the different solid boundaries where the fluid is composed. Generally, pressure is considered to be a conjugate factor to the volume of the system in thermodynamics. As a conjugate, the pressure is known to cause key changes on volume for the system. This is because the pressure creates the force which stresses the system where the fluid is moving through. Combination of the pressure and volume is able to result to the amount of energy which the system is able to lose due to the mechanical work. Generally, pressure is defined as the driving force which leads to the volume as the associated displacement in a thermodynamic system. In a thermodynamic, the pressure is a seen as stress tensor. This is because the pressure is able to exert the pressure to the system (Chang, 2014). Increasing the pressure for the system means that the solid surface contact of the particle is increased. Therefore, due to their effect, pressure plays a critical role in defining different thermodynamic reactions. To understand the pressure, understanding of the particles is essential to enhance the pressure action on the thermodynamic system.

Pressure in any given system is defined from the contact to the external solid surface. Increasing the contact is able to define the increased pressure. Wettability on the other hand is defined by the level of contact which the system is able experience. Increasing the area of collision to the surface is able to increase the wettability (Mittal, & International Symposium on Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion, 2009). When pressure is increased, the collision per unit time is increased. This means that the wettability is increased at the same time. Therefore, it has been found that pressure increase contributes to increase to wettability (Mittal, 2008). Many more molecules are able to hit the solid surface when the pressure for the thermodynamic is high. Thus general considerations attribute these collisions to the surface with wettability. Pressure for the fluids increases their movement and the level at which they hit the surface. This contributes highly to the increase of the wettability factor in the thermodynamics (International Symposium on Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion, & Mittal, 2002). In addition, the increased pressure is able to increase the volume and thus increasing the hitting area. This increases the wettbility area for the given solid surface. Therefore from the perspective of the area considered, the increase in pressure increases the area for wettability and therefore contributing to the increase of the factor.

The pressure also has direct influence of the angle of contact for the particles. At high pressure, the thermodynamic particles are able to move at high speed and thus hitting the solid surface much harder (Cengel and Michael, 2011). The particles will be able to bounce with high contact angle when the pressure is increased. Considering the particle movement at low pressure, they come with low energy which produce very small contact angle. Therefore the pressure has direct effect on the contact angle. In fact, pressure and the contact angle for the particles in thermodynamics have been found to be directly correlated. Increasing the pressure factor is able to contribute to an increase of the contact angle for the particles. The particles at high pressure move with a lot of energy, which make them to emit the energy and bouncing at a bigger angle (Marsland, Brown, & Valente, 2015). In addition, when under pressure, the particle sizes are able to increase and thus creating an increase in the contact angle to the surface. The pressure makes the particles large since they absorb much energy. With the energy and speed, the particles are able to hit the surface more and increasing the contact angle involved.

In the case of carbon capture and oil storage, the pressure is able to dictate the amount of carbon captured. The increase in pressure reduces the amount of gas which can be stored in any solid surface. High pressure ensures that the particles are in motion causing a lot of collision. This is not favorable especially when a lot of gas has to be captured. For effectively capture, the wettability and contact angle must be minimum. This will ensure that increased carbon capture is attained at any given moment. Low pressure is able to produce low contact angle and wettability. The gas at low pressure means a lot of particles are captured unlike at high pressure. When done at high pressure, the particles have a lot of energy to move around and therefore making is hard for the capture process. Therefore for the capture of carbon, the pressure can be considered to require and inverse relation. Low pressure is able to result to an increase of the carbon capture. At any moment the carbon capture is carried out, the requirement for effectiveness and high gas capture is always aimed. Creating an environment with low pressure helps to enhance the effectiveness of this process and capturing high amount of the gas.

For the oil recovery process, the particles are affected by the amount of pressure exerted at any given moment. The pressure makes the particles to acquire high internal energy which affects the oil recovery process (Feinberg, 2016). Oil recovery process is based on the density of the particles. The increase of the pressure means that a lot of the oil particles will have high energy for them to escape from a given environment. Using the escaping mechanism as a method to recover oil will means that the increased pressure will increase the effectiveness of oil separation. Oil recovery process is able to use the densities of the separate the oils. Thermodynamic Variables Fluid Solid Surfaces To effectively recovery the oil, the pressure needs to be lowered to lower the molecules escaping energy. The different densities mean that the increased pressure will make the particles acquire the escaping energy at different stages. This will means that pressure is a positive factor which will enhance the recovery process for the oils. Thermodynamic Variables Fluid Solid Surfaces

Changed in temperature has key effects on the carbon capture process as well. Increasing the temperature means that the carbon molecules will acquire more energy. This increases the speed which they can move around with (Gemmer, Michel & Mahler, 2009). Thermodynamic Variables Fluid Solid Surfaces In turn, few molecules will try to escape when the temperature levels are high and this causes an ineffective capturing process. High moving molecules are hard to capture and this is one of the great effects of the increased temperatures on the carbon capture process. The carbon particles are able to increase when they acquire a lot of energy and this means that few molecules with be captured at a constant volume. In addition, this is the same effect which is experienced when the particles are moving at high speed. Few molecules will be captures and stored at high temperatures due to the energy they possess. Their speed increases the collisions and thus creating unnecessary pressure. This variable therefore needs to be lowered when the carbon capture process is being carried out. At low temperature, the particles of carbon move at slow space and the escaping rate is low (Bentley, Lusk & Wyoming State Geological Survey, 2008). In addition, at low temperature, the molecules have less energy and less collision is created. The process effectiveness is therefore achieved at this point. Maintaining low temperature will compact many molecules together and thus ensuring the carbon capture process is effective. In conclusion, the temperature variable is an important factor when this process is carried out. The effectiveness of the process directly relate with the temperature level at the given environment.

In addition, when it comes to the oil recovery, the fractional distillation process is based on different temperatures. Different oils have different temperatures when they evaporate and when melting (Alberta Economic Development Authority, 2009). This means that their particles are able to escape at different temperatures. The oil recovery is largely based on the escaping temperature of the oil particles. Increasing the temperature means that different particles will escape at different designated temperatures. This will enhance the effectiveness of their separation. To recovery the oil, temperature need to be lowered and ensure much of the oil is recovered. Lowering the temperature levels will ensure that a lot of oil molecules have less energy to escape and therefore they can be contained (Kulichenko & Ereira, 2012). Therefore to enhance the effectiveness of the oil recovery, low temperature will be required. Molecules in thermodynamics will have low energy at low temperature and thus low chances of escaping when recovering the oil.

In conclusion, different papers are able to hold same view as to this paper when dealing with the thermodynamic variables. Many papers have reported that the wettability and contact angle are able to increase when temperature and pressure are increased (Feinberg, 2016). The increase is attributed to the increase in the amount of energy which the thermodynamic particles are able to acquire when these variables are increased (Schneider & Hutter, 2009). The increase of the energy results to increased contact with the solid surface where the thermodynamic fluid is contained. This results to an increase of wettability factor (Roshan, Al-Yaseri,  Sarmadivaleh & Iglauer, 2016). The increased energy increases the speed of the particles and thus increasing the pressure imposed. High bouncing effects due to the increased energy is reported to increase the contact angle experienced (Maugin & Muschik, 1994).  Generally, these variables are able to increase the internal energy of the particles. Same as the analysis in this paper, the same principle is held with the effect of increased internal energy of the particles (Schlangen, Koopal, Cohen Stuart & Lyklema, 1994). In addition, different papers are able to hold the same view on the effect of these papers on carbon capture and oil recovery process. Under these papers, they note that low pressure and temperatures are essential during these two key processes. The low variable conditions lower the energy in the particles and therefore ensuring that their escaping factor is reduced. These variables therefore play a key role in enhancing the effectiveness of these two processes.

Methodology: Application Of Fractional Wettability Model

Knowledge and comprehension of the rock wettability is critical in mitigating hydraulic fracturing ?uid loss (Roshan et al., 2106). However, such understanding cannot be gain without contact angle data. However, obtaining the data for wetting angle of the liquid to the solid in present of the gas is not an easy process.

Available literature has shown that the best way of getting the contact angle data is through experiment (Roshan et al., 2106; Dehghanpour et al, 2013). But such experiement utilised existing theoritical models to justify validity of the data. Once a data is obtaine, a theoritical model can then be developed (Roshan et al., 2106).

Considering the limitation of resources and time constrain to conduct series of experiement to obtain the necessary data required for the analysis of contact angle and the associated parameters such as pressure, temperature and density, this research will analyst data from secondary sources.

Therefore, one of the fundamental theories which will be used in this research is the Fractional Wettability. The fractiobnal wettability t5heory helps to analyze the frequence of particle movement and collision with the outer way at didffferent variation (Bradford and Leij, 1996). This model is based on the concept of the Buckley-Leverett approach (Ahmed & McKinney, 2014), which explains the mechanism of displacement of a wetting fluid by a non-wetting fluid.

Explaining Fractional Wettability From The Buckley And Leverett Approach

The Buckley and Leverett was chosen as the suitable approach of explaining the fractional wettability method as it is one of the few approaches which assumes that an immiscible displacement can be modelled mathematically as a one-dimensional problem based on the relative permeability concept (Ahmed & McKinney, 2014).  Thus, this method allow for a determination of a mean sweep efficiency from one pore to the next pore with the displacing phase in a linear system. This theory makes two important assumptions which must be observed during the experiement, and those assumption will be central to the analysis and presentation of data in this research. The Buckley and Leverett model assumes that (Ahmed & McKinney, 2014).

  • The pressure remains constant.
  • The displacing fluid is injected at a constant rate.

Once of the important thermodynamic parameters utilised in such experiment as already mentioned in the Buckley and Leverett model is the capillary pressure. In simple definition, capillary pressure is the force that causes a fluid to rise up the capillary tube when one end of the tube is immersed in a wetting fluid (Ahmed & McKinney, 2014; Stevens, 2005; Bradford and Leij, 1996). This force acts on a tube and forms the contact angle, θ with the wall of the tube of a given length and radius. Additionally, the force is related to an equal energy required to the maintain the interface between the water and oil which is also called tension.When the force is divided by the area of the tube, the resultant quotient is known as the capillary pressure, Pc, which is always at an equilibrium between the upward and downward forces. Thermodynamic Variables Fluid Solid Surfaces

Equilibrium Capillary Pressure And Fractional Wettability

However, understanding of capillary pressure is very critical in derivation of any wettability equation. The approach used in deriving the relationship between contact angle and capillary pressure is the equilibrium capillary pressure technique (Stevens, 2005). Thermodynamic Variables Fluid Solid Surfaces According to Stevens (2005), Bradford and Leij (1996), the advancing contact angle is formulated from Laplace equation;Thermodynamic Variables Fluid Solid Surfaces

Where   the surface tension of the liquid,  is capillary pressure , is the contact angle on the particles, and   is radius is an effective one.

But the component needed before any calculation can be done is the surface area of the solid phase which is expressed in equation below;

Where  is surface area of solid,  is capillary length,  is liquid density, and  are the respective solid and liquid  contact angles. Once the advancing angle has been determined, the contact angle for two liquids can be calcucalted from their respective pressures.

After the liquid has receded backwards in the tube, the pressures for the two liquids are measured and then used to calculate the receding contact angle as showed in equation defined below

Since wettability is determined by horizontal force (Bradford and Leij, 1996), the simplified form of equation for horizontal wettability is

Where   the surface tension of the liquid,  denote the lighter liquid,  denote the denser liquid,  denote a flat solid surface, and  is the contact angle on the particles.

Thermodynamic Variables Fluid Solid Surfaces