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IMPORTANT NOTE REGARDING WORD LIMIT REQUIREMENTS:

Please note that each and every assignment has its own word limit.

Race and Public Health

Race is considered to be a significant predictor of various diseases. A higher incidence of the specific disease has been reported across multiple races compared to others. For instance, the Ashkenazi Jews are predisposed to different disease conditions, including Tay Sach disease, Caravan disease, Bloom syndrome, and Gaucher’s disease compared to other ethnic or racial groups (Dagan et al., 2016; Shiner et al., 2016). Also, specific minority communities across the US, including African Americans, have reported a higher incidence of various lifestyle disorders compared to the majority white community. Thus, by indicating that race should not be a factor in public data collection, there is an increased risk of providing wrong information about the true estimates of various diseases. Also, it would be unethical not to collect information on race considering that health services across major developed countries have solely focused on the majority communities leaving out the minority communities (Howell, 2018; Pool, Ning, Lloyd-Jones, & Allen, 2017). Less efforts have been placed in reducing the existing gaps. The ethical principle of justice and fairness requires that all citizens have equal access to any service, including the needed health services. However, this is not the case across the major healthcare system. In essence, the ethical principle of justice and fairness has not been observed across most healthcare systems. The continuous failure to include race as a risk factor increases the existing disparities and predisposes more people from minority communities to many different disease conditions. Ultimately, higher rates associated with the disease are more likely to be reported in such populations. Aspects such as beneficence and respect for individuals are the other ethical aspects that are affected by health discrimination. Beneficence requires that the overall action to be taken should focus on the overall good of society.

Collecting data on race in public health is also a two-faced sword and can be linked with negative outcomes. Providing information about the race of an individual has been shown over time to increase the incidence of institutional racism. For instance, hospitals across the United States have been systematically segregated and discriminated based on an individual’s race and ethnicity (McCluney, Schmitz, Hicken, & Sonnega, 2018). Hospitals and clinical settings were once designated based on ethnic and racial minorities. Such hospitals continue to receive significant financial constraints, remain improperly understaffed and under-resourced.

Such issues create inequities in access to healthcare services and the quality of services offered. Institutionalizing racism will continue to exist, provided discrimination occurs within the healthcare system in terms of resources.

References

American Psychological Association. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th Ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Dagan, E., Schlesinger, I., Kurolap, A., Ayoub, M., Nassar, M., Peretz-Aharon, J., … & Gershoni-Baruch, R. (2016). LRRK2, GBA, and SMPD1 Founder Mutations and Parkinson’s Disease in Ashkenazi Jews. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 42(1–2), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1159/000447450

Howell, E. A. (2018). Reducing Disparities in Severe Maternal Morbidity and Mortality. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 61(2), 387–399. https://doi.org/10.1097/GRF.0000000000000349

McCluney, C. L., Schmitz, L. L., Hicken, M. T., & Sonnega, A. (2018). Structural racism in the workplace: Does perception matter for health inequalities? Social Science and Medicine, 199, 106–114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.05.039

Pool, L. R., Ning, H., Lloyd-Jones, D. M., & Allen, N. B. (2017). Trends in Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Cardiovascular Health Among US Adults From 1999-2012. Journal of the American Heart Association, 6(9). https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.117.006027

Shiner, T., Mirelman, A., Weisz, M. G., Bar-Shira, A., Ash, E., Cialic, R., …& Giladi, N. (2016). High frequency of GBA gene mutations in dementia with Lewy bodies among Ashkenazi Jews. JAMA Neurology, 73(12), 1448–1453. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2016.1593


Some states are not disclosing race for the deaths due to COVID-19 and other just started reporting it. What are your thoughts?

Respond to the question above in BOLD based on the two paragraphs ABOVE it after reading the attachment… in APA format with At least two references and a minimum of 200 words….. .(The List of References should not be included in the word count.)

  • Validate an idea with your own experience.
  • Make a suggestion.


Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT presenting an explanation from the context of ethics and the readings for this class

To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for this assignments 1) look at the word/page limits 2) review and follow APA rules 3) create subheadings to identify the key sections you are presenting and 4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.

REMEMBER IN APA FORMAT JOURNAL TITLES AND VOLUME NUMBERS ARE ITALICIZED.